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Full text of "Indian Poetry"

TRUBNER'S ORIENTAL SERIES. 



" A knowledge of the commonplace, at least, of Oriental literature, philo- 
sophy, and religion is as necessary to the general reader of the present day 
as an acquaintance with the Latin and Greek classics was a generation or so 
ago. Immense strides have been made within the present century in these 
branches of learning ; Sanskrit has been brought within the range of accurate 
philology, and its invaluable ancient literature thoroughly investigated ; the 
language and sacred books of the Zoroastrians have been laid bare ; Egyptian, 
Assyrian, and other records of the remote past have been deciphered, and a 
group of scholars speak of still more recondite Accadian and Hittite monu- 
ments ; but the results of all the scholarship that has been devoted to these 
subjects have been almost inaccessible to the public because they were con^ 
tained for the most part in learned or expensive works, or scattered through- 
out the numbers of scientific periodicals. Messrs. TaCBNER & Co. , in a spirit 
of enterprise which does them infinite credit, have determined to supply the 
constantly-increasing want, and to give in a popular, or, at least, a compre- 
hensive form, all this mass of knowledge to the world." Times. 



NOW READY, 
Post 8vo, pp. 568, with Map, cloth, price i6s. 

THE INDIAN EMPIRE : ITS HISTORY, PEOPLE, 
AND PRODUCTS. 

Btfng a revised form of the article "India," in the "Imperial Gazetteer," 

remodelled into chapters, brought up to date, and incorporating 

the general results of the Census of 1881. 

Bi W. W. HUNTER, C.I.E., LL.D., 

Director-General of Statistics to the Government of India. 

k 

" The article 'India,' in Yolume IV., is the touchstone of the work, and proves 
clearly enough the sterling metal of which it is wrought. It represent* the eatence 
of the 100 volumes which contain the results of the statistical surrey conducted by 



Dr. Hunter throughout each of the 940 districts of India. It iapforoover, the only 
attempt that hat ever been made to show how the Indian people have bean built fcp. 
*nd the evidence from the original materials haa been for the first time sifted and 
examined by the light of the local research in which the autSor was for so tag 
engaged." rfcne*. 



TRUBNER'S ORIENTAL SERIES. 



FOLLOWING WORKS HAVE ALREADY APPEARED: 

Second Edition, post 8vo, cloth, pp. xvi 428, price i6s. 

ESSAYS ON THE SACRED LANGUAGE, WRITINGS, 

AND RELIGION OF THE PARSIS. 

BY MARTIN HAUG, PH.D., 

Lnte of the Universities of Tiibingen, Gottingen, and Bonn ; Superintendent 
of Sanskrit Studies, and Professor of Sanskrit in the Pooua College. 

EDITED BY DR. E. W. WEST. 

I. History of the Researches into the Sacred Writings and Religion of the 

Parsis, from the Earliest Times down to the Present. 
II. Languages of the Parsi Scriptures. 

III. The Zend-Avesta, or the Scripture of the Parsis. 

IV. The Zoroastrian Religion, as to its Origin and Development. 

" ' Essays on the Sacred Language, Writings, and Religion of the Parsis,' by the 
late Dr. Martin Haug, edited by Dr. E. W. West. The author intended, on his return 
from India, to expaud the materials contained in this work into a comprehensive 
account of the Zoroastrian religion, but the design was frustrated by liis untimely 
death. We have, however, in a concise and readable form, a history of the researches 
into the sacred writings and religion of the Parsis from the earliest times down to 
the present a dissertation on the languages of the Parsi Scriptures, a translation 
of the Zend-Avesta, or the Scripture of the Parsis, and a dissertation on the Zoroas- 
tri&n religion, with especial reference to its origin and development." Times. 



Post 8vo, cloth, pp. viii. 176, price ys. 6d. 

TEXTS FROM THE BUDDHIST CANON 

COMMONLY KNOWN AS "DHAMMAPADA." 
With Accompanying Narratives. 

Translated from the Chinese by S. BEAL, B.A., Professor of Chinese, 
University College, London. 

The Dhammapada, as hitherto known by the Pali Text Edition, as edited 
by Fausboll, by Max Mailer's English, and Albrecht Weber'g German 
translations, consists only of twenty-six chapters or sections, whilst the 
Chinese version, or rather recension, as now translated by Mr. Beal, con- 
sist* of thirty-nine sections. The students of Pali who possess Fausboll's 
text, or either of the above named translations, will therefore needs want 
M|f. Beal's English rendering of the Chinese version ; the thirteen above- 
named additional sections not being accessible to them in any other form ; 
for, ev#n if they understand Chinese, the Chinese original would be un- 
obtainable by them. 

" Mr. Beal's rendering of the Chinese translation is a most valuable aid |fc the 
critical study of the work. It contains authentic texts gathered from ancient 
canonical books, and generally connected with some incident in the history of 
Buddha. Their great interest, however, consists in the light wbich they throw ujwii 
everyday life in India at the remote period at which they were written, and upon 
the method of teaching adopted by the founder of the religion. The method 
employed was principally parable, and the simplicity of the tale* and the excellence 
of the morals inculcated, as well as the strange hold which they have retained upon 
the minds of millions of people, make them a very remarkable study." Tiine*. 

" Mr. Beal by making it accessible in an English dre*8, 1ms added to the great ser- 
vices he has already rendered to the comparative study of religious history." Acvdemy. 

'< Valuable as exhibiting the doctrine of the BuddhintH in its purest, leort adul- 
terated form, it brings the modern reader face to face with that simple creed and rule 
of conduct whicjflfcron its way over the minds of myriads, and which is now nominally 
professed by 145 millions, who have overlaid its austere simplicity with innumerable 
ceremonies, forgotten its maxims, perverted its teaching, and so inverted its leading 
principle that a *eli#ion whose founder denied a God, now worships that founder 00 
a god himself." 



TRUBNER'S ORIENTAL SERIES. 



Second Edition, post 8vo, cloth, pp. ixiv. 360, price IDS. 6d. 

\ THE HISTORY OP INDIAN LITERATURE. 
BY ALBRECHT WEBER. 

Translated from the Second German Edition by JOHN MANN, M.A., and 
TnrioDOR ZACHABIAE, Ph.D., with the sanction of the Author. 

"Dft. BUHLER, Inspector of Schools in India, write*,: 4 ' When I was Pro- 
fessor of Oriental Languages in Elphinstone College, I frequently felt the 
want of such a work to which I could refer the students." 

Professor COWELL, of Cambridge, writes : "It will be especially useful 
to the students in our Indian colleges and universities. I used to long for 
such a book when I was teaching in Calcutta. Hindu students are intensely 
interested in the history of Sanskrit literature, and this volume will supply 
them with all they want on the subject." 

Professor WHITNEY, Yale College, Newhaven, Conn., U.S.A., writes : 
" I was one of the class to whom the work was originally given in the form 
of academic lectures. At their first appearance they were by far the most 
learned and able treatment of their subject ; and with their recent additions 
they still maintain decidedly the same rank." 

" Is perhaps the most comprehensive and lucid survey of Sanskrit literature 
extant. The essnvs contained in the volume were originally delivered as academic 
lectures, and at the time of their first publication were acknowledged to be by far 
the most learned and able treatment of the subject. They have now been brought 
up to date by the addition of all the most important results of recent research." 
Tnuet. 

Post 8vo, cloth, pp. xii. 198, accompanied by Two Language 
Maps, price 123. 

A SKETCH OF 
THE MODERN LANGUAGES OF THE EAST INDIES. 

BY ROBERT N. COST. 

The Author has attempted to fill up a vacuum, the inconvenience of 
which pressed itself on his notice. Much had been written about the 
languages of the East Indies, but the extent of our present knowledge had 
not even been brought to a focus. It occurred to him that it might be of 
use to others to publish in an arranged form the notes which he had collected 
for his own edification. 

" Supplies a deficiency which has long been felt." Times. 

" The book before us is then a valuable contribution to philological science. It 
passes under review a vast number of languages, and it give, or professes to give, in 
every case the sum and substance of the opinions and judgments of the best-informed 
writers." Saturday Jievitw. 

Second Corrected Edition, post 8vo, pp. xii. 116, cloth, price 53. 

THE BIRTH OF THE WAR-GOD. 

A Poem. BY KALIDASA. 

Translated from the Sanskrit into English Verse by 
RALPH T. H. GRIFFITH, M.A. 

" A very spirited rendering of the Kumdratambhara, which was first published 
twenty-six years ago, and which we are glad to see made once more accessible," 
Time*. 

"Mr. Griffith's very spirited rendering is well known to mosr who are at all 
interested in Indian literature, or enjoy the tenderness of feeling and rich creative 
imagination of its author." Indian Antiquary. 

"we are very glad to welcome a second edition of Professor Griffith's admirable 
translation. Few translations deserve a second edition better." - 



TRUBNER'S ORIENTAL SERIES. 

Post 8vo, cloth, pp. 432, price i6s. 

A CLASSICAL DICTIONARY OF HINDU MYTHOLOGY 

AND RELIGION, GEOGRAPHY, HISTORY, AND 

LITERATURE. 

BY JOHN DOWSON, M.R.A.S., 
Late Professor of Hindustani, Staff College. 

In this work an ndeavour has been made to supply the long-felt want of 
a Hindu Classical Dictionary. The main portion of this work consists of 
mythology, but religion is bound up with mythology, and in many poiuts 
the two are quite inseparable. 

This work will be a book of reference for all concerned in the government 
of the Hindus, but it will be more especially useful to young Civil Servants, 
and to masters and students in the universities, colleges, and schools in India. 

" This not only forms an indispensable book of reference to students of Indian 
literature, but is also of great general interest, as it gives in a concise and easily 
accessible form all that need be known about the personages of Hindu mythology 
whose names are so familiar, but of whom so little is known outside the limited 
circle of avant." Timet. 

" It is no slight gain when such subjects are treated fairly and fully in a moderate 
space ; and we need only add that the few wants which we may hope to see supplied 
in new editions detract but little from the general excellence of Mr. Dowson's work." 
Saturday Review. 

Post 8vo, with View of Mecca, pp. cxii. 172, cloth, price 93. 
SELECTIONS FROM THE KORAN. 

BY EDWARD WILLIAM LANE, 
Hon. Doctor of Literature, Leyden, &c., <fec. ; Translator of " The Thousaiid and One 

Nights;" <kc., <tc. 
A New Edition, Revised and Enlarged, with an Introduction by 

STANLEY LANE POOLE. 

"... Has been long esteemed in this country as the compilation of one of the 
greatest Arabic scholars of the time, the late Mr. Lane, the well-kuowu translator of 
the 'Arabian Nights.' . . . The present editor has enhanced the value of his 
relative's work by divesting the text of a great deal of extraneous matter introduced 
by way of comment, and prefixing an introduction."- Tima. 

"Mr. Poole is both a generous and a learned biographer. ... Mr. Poole tells us 
the facts ... so far as it is possible for industry and criticism to ascertain them, 
and for literary skill to present them in a condensed and readable form." Enffli*h- 
man, Calcutta. 

Post 8vo, pp. vi. 368, cloth, price 148. 

MODERN INDIA AND THE INDIANS, 
BEING A SERIES OP IMPRESSIONS, NOTES, AND ESSAYS. 

BY MONIER WILLIAMS, D.C.L., 
Hon. LL.D. of the University of Calcutta, Hon. Member of the Bombay Asiatic 

Society, Boden Professor of Sanskrit in the University of Oxford. 
Third Edition, revised and augmented by considerable Additions, 

with Illustrations and a Map. 

Thii edition will be found a great improvement on those that preceded it. 
The author has taken care to avail himself of all such criticisms on particular 
passages in the previous editions as appeared to him to be just, and he hat 
enlarged the work by more than a hundred pages of additional matter. 

" In this volume we have the thoughtful Impressions of a thoughtful man on some 
of the most important questions connected with our Indian Empire. ... An en- 
lightened observant man, travelling among an enlightened observant people, Prof owor 
Monier Williams has brought before the public in a pleasant form more of the manner* 
ana customs of the Queen's Indian subjects than we ever remember to have seen in 
ttny l2* 2f art He not ^y deserves the thanks of every Englishman for this able 
contribution to the study of Modern India a subject with which we should be 
specially familiar but he deserves tho thanks of every Indian, PHinee or Hm4u, 
lluddhist and Moslem, for his clear exposition of their manners, their creed*, and 
"-- 



TRUBNER'S ORIENTAL SERIES. 
Post 8vo, pp. xliv. 376, cloth, price 148. 

METRICAL TRANSLATIONS FROM SANSKRIT 
WRITERS. 

With an Introduction, many Prose Versions, and Parallel Passages from 
Classical Authors. 

BY J. MUIR, C.I.E., D.C.L., LL.D., Ph.D. 

". . . An agreeable introduction to Hindu poetry." Ti met. 

"... A volume which may be taken as a fair illustration alike of the religious 
:md moral sentiments and of the legendary lore of the best Sanskrit writers." 
Edinburgh Daily Review. 

In Two Volumes, post 8vo, pp. viii. 408 and viii. 348, cloth, price 283. 

MISCELLANEOUS ESSATS RELATING TO INDIAN 
SUBJECTS. 

BY BRIAN HOUGHTON HODGSON, ESQ., F.R.S., 

Late of the Bengal Civil Service ; Corresponding Member of the Institute ; Chevalier 
of the Legion of Honour ; late British Minister at the Court of Nepal, Ac., &c. 

CONTENTS OF VOL. I. 

SECTION I. On the Kocch, Bodo, and Dhimal Tribes. Part I. Vocabulary. 
Part II. Grammar. Part III. Their Origin, Location, Numbers, Creed, Customs, 
Character, and Condition, with a General Description of the Climate they dwell in. 
Appendix. 

SECTION II. On Himalayan Ethnology. I. Comparative Vocabulary of the Lan- 
guages of the Broken Tribes of Ne*pal. II. Vocabulary of the Dialects of the Kiranti 
Language. III. Grammatical Analysis of the Vayu Language. The Vayu Grammar. 
IV. Analysis of the Bahing Dialect of the Kiranti Language. The Baching Gram- 
mar. V. On the Vayu or Hayu Tribe of the Central Himalaya. VI. On the Kiranti 
Tribe of the Central Himalaya. 

CONTENTS OF VOL. II. 

SECTION III. On the Aborigines of North-Eastern India. Comparative Vocabulary 
of the Tibetan, B6d6, and Gar6 Tongues. 

SECTION IV. Aborigines of the North-Eastern Frontier. 

SECTION V. Aborigines of the Eastern Frontier. 

SECTION VI The Indo-Chinese Borderers, and their connection with the Hitna 
layans and Tibetans. Comparative Vocabulary of Indo-Chinese Borderers in Arakan. 
Comparative Vocabulary ot Indo-Chinese Borderers in Tenasserim. 

SECTION VII. -The Mongolian Affinities of the Caucasians. Comparison and Ana- 
lysis of Caucasian and Mongolian Words. 

SECTION VIII. Physical Type of Tibetans. 

SECTION IX. The Aborigines of Central India. Comparative Vocabulary of the 
Aboriginal Languages of Central India. Aborigines of the Eastern Ghats. Vocabu- 
lary of some of the Dialects of the Hill and Wandering Tribes in the Northern Sircars, 
Aborigines of the Nilgiris, with Remarks on their Affinities. Supplement to the 
Nilgirian Vocabularies. The Aborigines of Southern India and Ceylon. 

SECTION X. Route of Nepalese Mission to Pekin, with Remarks on the Water- 
Shed and Plateau of Tibet. 

SECTION XL Route from KAthmandu, the' Capital of Nepal, to Darjeeling in 
Sikim. Memorandum relative to the Seven Costs of Nepal. 

SECTION XII. Some Accounts of the Systems of Law and Police as recognised in 
the State of Nepal. 

SECTION XIII. The Native Method of making the Paper denominated Hindustan. 
Nepalese. 

SECTION XIV. Pre-eminence of the Vernaculars ; or, the Anglicists Answered : 
Being Letters on the Education of the People of India. 

" For the study of the less-known races of India Mr. Brian Hodgson's 'Miscellane- 
ous Essays ' will be found very valuable both to the philologist and the ethnologist." 



TRUBNER'S ORIENTAL SERIES. 

Third Edition, Two Vols., post 8yo, pp. viii. 268 and viii. 326, cloth, 
price 2is. 

THE LIFE OR LEGEND OF GAUDAMA, 

THE BUDDHA OF THE BURMESE. With Annotations. 
The Ways to Neibban, and Notice on the Phongyies or Burmese Monks. 

BY THE RIGHT REV. P. BIGANDET, 
Bishop of RamatJin, Vicar- Apostolic of Ava and Pegu. 

"The work is furnished with copious notes, which not only illustrate the subjcet- 
matter, but form a perfect encyclopaedia of Buddhist lore." Times. 

"A work which will furnish European students of Buddhism wit h a most valuable 
help in the prosecution of their investigations." Edinburgh Daily Review. 

" Bishop Bigandet's invaluable work, . . . and no work founded rather trans- 
lated from original sources presents to the Western student a more faithful picture 
than that of Bishop Bigandot." Indian Antiquary. 

" Viewed in this light, its importance is sufficient to place students of the subject 
under a deep obligation to its author." Calcutta Rcvinc. 

"This work is one of the greatest authorities upon Buddhism." Dublin Rrrieir. 

"... A performance the great value oi which is well known to all btudents of 
Buddhism "TvbUt. 



Post 8vo, pp. xxiv. 420, cloth, price i8s. 

CHINESE BUDDHISM. 
A VOLUME OF SKETCHES, HISTORICAL AND CRITICAL. 

BY J. EDKINS, D.D. 
Author of " China's Place in Philology," " Religion in China," &c. &c. 

'It contains a vast deal of important information on the subject, such as is only 
to be g.imed by long-continued tudy on the spot." Athetimum. 

" It is impossible within our limits even fc> mention the various subjects connected 
with Buddhism with which Dr. Edkins deals." Saturday Renew. 

"Upon the whole, \\c know of no work comparable to it for the extent of it 
original research, and the simplicity wifh which this complicated system of philo- 
sophy, religion, literature, and ritual is set forth." Briti&k Quarterly Review. 

" The whole volume is replete with learning. ... It deserves most careful study 
from all interested in the history of the religion* of the world, and expressly of those 
who are concerned in the propagation of Christianity. Dr. Edkins notices in terms 
of just condemnation the exaggerated piaise bestowed upon Buddhism by recent 
English writers." Record. 



Second Edition, post 8vo, pp. xxvi. 244, cloth, price IDS. 6d. 

THE GULISTAN; 

OR, ROSE GARDEN OF SHEKH MUSHLIU'D-DIN SADI OF SHIRAZ. 

Translated for the First Time into Prose and Verse, with an Introductory , 
Preface, and a Life of the Author, from the Atiah Kadah, 

BY EDWARD B. EASTWICK, C.B., M.A., F.R.S., M.R.A.S., 

Of Merton College, Oxford, &c. 
" It is a very fair rendering of the original. "-Time*. 

" The new edition has long beet) desired, and will be welcomed by all who take 
any interest in Oriental poetry. The Qulittan is a typical Persian verse-book of tho 
highest order. Mr. Eaatwick's rhymed translation . . . has Jong established itself iu 
u secure position as the best version of Badi's finest work." Academy. 
" It is both faithfully and gracefully executed." Tablet* 



TRUBNER'S ORIENTAL SERIES. 
Post 8vo, pp. 496, cloth, price i8g. 

LINGUISTIC AND ORIENTAL ESSAYS. 

WRITTEN FROM THE YEAR 1846 TO 1878. 
BY ROBERT NEEDHAM CUST, 

Late Member of Her Majesty's Indian Civil Service ; Hon. Secretary to 

the Royal Asiatic tSooiety ; 
and Author of " The Modern Languages of the East Indies." 

" We know none who lias described Indian life, especially the life of the natives, 
with so much learning, sympathy, and literary talent." Academy. 

" It is impossible to do justice to any of these essays in the space at our command. . 
But they seem to us to be full of suggestive and original remarks." -Si. James's Gazette. 

" His book contains a vast amount of information, ... of much interest to every 
intelligent reader. It is, he tells us, the result of thirty-five years of inquiry, 
reflection, and speculation, and that on subjects as full of fascination as of food for 
thought." Tablet. 

"The essays exhibit suoh a thorough acquaintance with the history and 

antiquities of India as to entitle him to speak as one having authority." Edinburgh 
Daily Review. 

" The author sjHjaks with the authority of personal experience It is this 

constant association with the country and the people which gives such a vividness 
to many of the pages." Athaia'vm. 



Post 8vo, pp. civ. 348, cloth, price i8s. 

BUDDHIST BIETH STORIES; or, Jataka Tales. 

The Oldest Collection of Folk-lore Extant : 

BEING THE JATAKATTHAVANNANA, 

For the first time Edited in the original Pali. 

BY V. FAUSBOLL ; 

And Translated by T. W. RHYS DAVIDS. 

Translation. Volume I. 

"These are talcs supposed to have been told by the Buddha of what he had seen 
and heard in his previous births. They arc piobably the nearest representatives 
of the original Aryan stories from which sprang the folk-lore of Europe as well as 
India, and from which the Semitic nations also borrowed much The introduction 
contains a most interesting disquisition on the migrations of those fables, tracing 
their reappearance in the various groups of folk-lore legends respectively known as 
' ,Ksop's Fables,' the ' Hitopadosa,' the Calling and Damnag series, and even The 
Arabian Nights." Among other old friends. v\e meet with a version of the Judgment 
of Solomon, which proves, after all, to be an Aryan, and not a Semitic talc." Times. 

" It is now some years since Mr. Rhys Davids asserted his right to be heard on 
this subject by his able article on Buddhit.ni in the ne\\ edition of the ' Encyclopedia 
Britannica.'" Leeds Mercury. 

"All who are interested in Buddhist literature ought to feel deeply indebted to 
Mr. Rhys Davids. His well-established reputation as a Pali scholar is a sufficient 
guarantee for the fidelity of his version, ana the style of his translations is deserving 
of high yrateo." Academy. 

" It is certain that no more competent expositor of Buddhism could be found than 
Mr. lUiys Davids, and that these Birth Stories will be of the greatest interest and 
importance to students. In the Jataka book we have, then, a priceless record of the 
earliest imaginative literature of our race ; and Mr. Rhys Davids is well warranted 
in claiming that it presents to us a nearly complete picture of the social life and 
customs and popular beliefs of the common people of Aryan tribes, closely related to 
ourselves, just as they wore passing through the first stages ol civilisation." -/&. 
Janie*'* Gazette. 



TRUBNER'S ORIENTAL SERIES. 
Post 8vo, pp. xxviii. 362, cloth, price 148. 

A TALMUDIC MISCELLANY; 

OR, A THOUSAND AND ONE EXTRACTS FROM THE TALMUD, 
THE MIDRASHIM, AND THE KABBALAH. 

CompHed and Translated by PAUL ISAAC HERSHON, 
Author of ** Genesis According to the Talmud," &c. 

With Notes and Copious Indexes. 

" To obtain in so concise and handy a form as this volume a general idea of the 
Talmud is a boon to Christians at least." Times. 

" This is a new volume of the ' Oriental Series,' and its peculiar and popular 
character will make it attractive to general leaders. Mr. Hershou is a very com- 
petent scholar. . . . The present selectioii contains samples of the good, bad, and 
indifferent, and especially extracts that throw light upon the Scriptures. The 
extracts have been all derived, word for word, and made at first hand, and references 
are carefully given." British Quarterly JKcvicic. 

" Mr Hcrshon's book, at all events, will convey to English readers a more complete 
and truthful notion of the Talmud than any other work that has yet appeared." 
Daily News. 

" Without overlooking in the slightest the several attractions of the previous 
volumes of the ' Oriental feeries.' we have no hesitation in saying that this surpasses 
them all in interest." Edinburgh Daily Jicvtew. 

" Mr. Hershon has done this ; he has taken samples from all parts of the Talmud, 
and thus given English readers what is, we believe, a fair set of specimens which 
they can test for themselves." The Record. 

" Altogether we believe that this book is by far the best fitted in the present state 
of knowledge to enable the general reader or the ordinary student to gain a fair and 
unbiassed conaeption of the multifarious contents of the wonderful miscellany which 
can dnly be truly understood so Jewish pride asserts by the life-long devotion of 
scholars of the Chosen People." hifjtnrci: 

" The value and importance of this volume consist in the fact that scarcely a single 
extract is given in its pages but throw** some light, direct or refracted, upon those 
Scriptures which are the common heritage of Jew and Christian alike." John Bull. 

" His acquaintance with the Talmud, <tc , is seen on every page of his book . . 
It is a capital specimen of Hebrew scholarship ; a monument of learned, loving, light- 
giving labour.' Jeicush Herald. 



Post 8vo, pp. xii. 228, cloth, price 73. 6d. 

THE CLASSICAL POETRY OF THE JAPANESE. 

BY BASIL HALL CHAMBERLAIN, 
Author of " Yeigo Henkaku Shiraft." 

" A very curious volume. The author has manifestly devoted much labour to the 
task of studying the poetical literature of the Japanese, and rendering characteristic 
specimens into English verse." Daily News. 

" Mr. Chamberlain's volume is, so far as we are aware, the first attempt which has 
been made to interpret the literature of the Japanese to the western world. Jt is to 
the classical poetry of Old Japan that we must turn for indigenous Japanese thought, 
and in the volume before us we have a selection from that poetry rendered into 
graceful English verse." Tablet. 

"It is undoubtedly one of the best translations of lyric literature which has 
appeared during the close of the last year." Cdextial Empire. 

11 Mr. Chamberlain set himself a difficult task when he undertook to reproduce 
Japanese poetry in an English form. But he has evidently laboured con amm-e, and 
his efforts are successful to a degree." London and Chin 



TRUBNER'S ORIENTAL SERIES. 
Post 8vo, pp. xii. 164, cloth, price ios. 6d. 

THE HISTOEY OF ESARHADDON (Son of Sennacherib), 

KING OF ASSYRIA, B.C. 681-668. 

Translated from the Cuneiform Inscriptions upon Cylinders and Tablets in 
the British Museum Collection ; together with a Grammatical Analysis 
of each Word, Explanations of the Ideographs by Extracts from the 
Bi-Lingual Syllabaries, and List of Eponyms, &c. 

BY ERNEST A. BUDGE, B.A., M.R.A.S., 

Assyrian Exhibitioner, Christ's College, Cambridge, Member of the 
Society of Biblical Archaeology. 

"Students of scriptural archaeology will also appreciate the 'History of Esar- 
haddon.' " Times. 

11 There is much to attract the scholar in this volume. It does not pretend to 
popularise studies which are yet in their infancy. Its primary object is to translate, 
but it does not assume to be more than tentative, and it offers both to the professed 
Assyriologist and to the ordinary non-Assyriological Semitic scholar the means of 
controlling its results." Academy. 

"Mr. Budge's book is, of course, mainly addressed to Assyrian scholars and 
students. Ttiey are not, it is to be feared, a very numeious class. But the more 
thanks are due to him on that account for the way in which he has acquitted himself 
in his laborious task." Tablet. 



Post 8vo, pp. 448, cloth, price 2is. 

THE MESNEVI 

(Usually known as THE MKSNEVITI SHERIF, or HOLY MESNEVI 

OF 
MEVLANA (OUR LORD) JELALU 'D-DIN MUHAMMED EK-RUMI. 

Book the First. 
Together with some Account of the Life and Acts of the Author, 

of his Ancestors, and of his Descendants. 
Illustrated by a Selection of Characteristic Anecdotes, as Collected 

by their Historian, 
MEVLANA SHEMSU-'D-DIN AHMED, EL EFLAKI, EL 'Aum. 

Translated, and the Poetry Versified, in English, 
BY JAMES W. REDHOUSE, M.R.A.S., &c. 

" A complete treasury of occult Oriental lore." Saturday Review. 

11 Tins book will be a very \aluable help to the reader ignorant of Persia, who is 
desirous of obtaining on insight into a very important department of the literature 
extant in that language." Tablet. 



Post 8vo, pp. xvi. 280, cloth, price 6s. 

EASTERN PROVERBS AND EMBLEMS 

ILLUSTRATING OLD TRUTHS. 

BY REV. J. LONG, 
Member of the Bengal Asiatic Society, F.R.G.S. 

" We regard the book as valuable, and wish for it a wide circulation and attentive 
reading." Record. 

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BT A. BARTH. 
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YUSUF AND ZULAIKHA. 

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Language as the Expression of National The Connection between Dictionary and 

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INDIAN POETRY 



CONTAINING 

A NEW EDITION OF "THE INDIAN SONG OP SONGS." 

FROM THE 

SANSKRIT OF THE GITA GOVINDA OF JAYADEVA; 

TWO BOOKS FROM "THE ILIAD OF INDIA" (MAHABHARATA) ; 

"PROVERBIAL WISDOM" FROM THE SHLOKAS OF THE 

HITOPADESA, AND OTHER ORIENTAL POEMS, 



BY 

EDWIN ARNOLD, M.A, 

Author of " The Light of Asia ; " 
COMPANION OF THE STAR OF INDIA; 

OFFICER OF THE WHITE ELEPHANT OF SIAM J 

THIRD CLAHS OF THE IMPERIAL ORDER OF THE MEDJIBIE : 

FELLOW OF THE ROYAL ASIATIC AND ROYAL <;EOURAPHICAL SOCIETIES 

HONORARY MEMBER OF THE SOCIETY DK UEOCRAPHIE, MARSEILLES, 

ETC ETC'. 

FORMERLY PRINCIPAL OF THE DECCAN COLLEGE, POONA, 
AND FELLOW OF THE UNIVERSITY OF BOMBAY 



LONDON: 
TRUBNER & CO., LUDGATE HILL. 

1881. 
[All riyhts reserved.] 



CONTENTS. 



THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS 

Introduction i 

Hymn to Vishnu ......... 3 

Sarga the First The Sports of Krishna .... 9 

Sarga the Second The Penitence of Krishna . . .22 

Sarga the Third Krishna troubled 31 

Sarga the Fourth Krishna cheered . . . . -37 

Sarga the Fifth The Longings of Krishna .... 44 

Sarga the Sixth Krishna made bolder .... 54 

Sarga the Seventh Krishna supposed false .... 59 
Sarga the Eighth The Rebuking of Krishna . . -75 

Sarga the Ninth The End of Krishna's Trial ... 79 

Sarga the Tenth Krishna in Paradise .... 83 

Sarga the Eleventh The Union of Radha and Krishna . 88 

MISCELLANEOUS ORIENTAL POEMS 

The Rajpoot Wife roi 

King Saladin 113 

The Caliph's Draught 132 

Hindoo Funeral Song 137 

Song of the Serpent Charmers 138 

Song of the Flour- Mill 140 

Taza ba Taza 142 



viii CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

The Mussulman Paradise 146 

Dedication of a Poem from the Sanskrit . . . 1 5 

The Rajah's Ride . 15 r 

Two BOOKS FROM THE " ILIAD OF INDIA " . . 159 

The Great Journey ... . 172 

The Entry into Heaven . .... 192 

THE NIGHT OF SLAUGHTER . . . . . . .210 

THE MORNING PRAYER .216 

PROVERBIAL WISDOM FROM THE SHLOKAS OF THE HITOPADE^A . 221 



THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 



JNTROD UCTION. 

OM! 

REVERENCE TO GAKESHA ! 

" THE sky is clouded ; and the wood resembles 

The sky, thick-arched with black Tamala boughs ; 
Radha, Radha ! take this Soul, that trembles 

In life's deep midnight, to Thy golden house." 
So Nanda spoke, and, led by Radha's spirit, 

The feet of Krishna found the road aright ; 
Wherefore, in bliss which all high hearts inherit, 

Together taste they Love's divine delight. 

He who wrote these things for thee, 
Of the Son of Wassoodee, 



THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 

Was the poet Jayadeva ; 
Him Saraswati gave ever 
Fancies fair his mind to throng, 
Like pictures palace-walls along ; 
Ever to his notes of love 
Lakshmi's mystic dancers move. 
If thy spirit seeks to "brood 
On Hari glorious, Hari good ; 
If it feeds on solemn numbers, 
Dim as dreams and soft as slumbers, 
Lend thine ear to Jayadev, 
Lord of all the spells that save. 
UmapatidJiara's strain 
Glows like roses after rain ; 
Sharan's stream-like song is grand, 
If its tide ye understand ; 
Bard more wise beneath the sun 
Is not found than Govardhun ; 
Dhoyi holds the listener still 
With his shlokes of subtle skill ; 
at for sweet words suited well 
Jayadeva doth excel. 



THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 3 

( What follows is to the Music MALAVA and the Mode 
EUPAKA.) 

HYMJST TO VISHNU. 

thou that held'st the blessed Veda dry 

When all things else beneath the floods were hurled ; 
Strong Fish-God ! Ark of Men ! Jai ! JIaxi,jai ! 

Hail, Keshav, hail ! thou Master of the world ! 

The round world rested on thy spacious nape ; 

Upon thy neck, like a mere mole, it stood : 
thou that took'st for us the Tortoise-shape, 

Hail, Keshav, hail ! Ruler of wave and wood ! 

The world upon thy curving tusk sate sure, 
Like the Moon's dark disc in her crescent pale ; 

thou who didst for us assume the Boar, 
Immortal Conqueror ! hail, Keshav, hail ! 

When thou thy Giant-Foe didst seize and rend, 
Fierce, fearful, long, and sharp were fang and nail ; 

Thou who the Lion and the Man didst blend, 
Lord of the Universe ! hail, Narsingh, hail ! 



4 THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 

Wonderful Dwarf ! who with a threefold stride 
Cheated King Bali where thy footsteps fall 

Men's sins, O Wamuna ! are set aside : 

O Keshav, hail ! thou Help and Hope of all ! 

The sins of this sad earth thoii didst assoil, 
The anguish of its creatures thou didst heal"; 

Freed are we from all terrors by thy toil : 

Hail, Purshuram, hail ! Lord of the biting steel ! 

To thee the fell Ten-Headed yielded life, 

Thou in dread battle laid'st the monster low ! 

Ah, Rama ! dear to Gods and men that strife ; 
We praise thee, Master of the matchless bow ! 

With clouds for garments glorious thou dost fare, 
Veiling thy dazzling majesty and might, 

As when Yamuna saw thee with the share, 
A peasant yet the King of Day and Night. 

Merciful-hearted ! when thou earnest as Boodh 
Albeit 'twas written in the Scriptures so 

Thou bad'st our altars be no more imbrued 

With blood of victims : Keshav ! bending low 



THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 

We praise thee, Wielder of the sweeping sword, 
Brilliant as curving comets in the gloom, 

Whose edge shall smite the fierce barbarian horde ; 
Hail to thee, Keshav ! hail, and hear, and come, 



And fill this song of Jayadev with thee, 

And make it wise to teach, strong to redeem, 

And sweet to living souls. Thou Mystery ! 

Thou Light of Life ! Thou Dawn beyond the dream ! 

Fish ! that didst outswim the flood ; 
Tortoise ! whereon earth hath stood ; 
Boar ! who with thy tush held'st high 
The world, that mortals might not die ; 
Lion ! who hast giants torn ; 
Dwarf ! who laugh'dst a king to scorn ; 
Sole Subduer of the Dreaded ! 
Slayer of the many -headed ! 
Mighty Ploughman ! Teacher tender ! 
Of thine own the sure Defender ! 
Under all thy ten disguises 
. Endless praise to thee arises. 



THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 



( What follows is to the Music GuRJJAftt and the Mode 



Endless praise arises, 
O thou God that liest 
Bapt, on Kumla's breast, 
Happiest, holiest, highest ! 
Planets are thy jewels, 
Stars thy forehead-gems, 
Set like sapphires gleaming 
In kingliest anadems ; 
Even the great gold Sun-God, 
Blazing through the sky, 
Serves thee but for crest-stone, 
Jaiy jai ! Hari, jai ! 
As that Lord of day 
After night brings morrow, 
Thou dost charm away 
Life's long dream of sorrow. 
As on Mansa's water 
Brood the swans at rest, 
So thy laws sit stately 
On a holy breast 



THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 

0, Drinker of the poison ! 

Ah, high Delight of earth ! 

What light is to the lotus-buds, 

What singing is to mirth, 

Art thou art thou that slayedst 

Madhou and Narak grim ; 

That ridest on the King of Birds, 

Making all glories dim. 

With eyes like open lotus-flowers, 

Bright in the morning rain, 

Freeing by one swift piteous glance 

The spirit from Life's pain : 

Of all the three Worlds Treasure ! 

Of sin the Putter-by ! 

O'er the Ten-Headed Victor ! 

Jai Hari ! Hari ! jai ! 

Thou Shaker of the Mountain ! 

Thou Shadow of the Storm ! 

Thou Cloud that unto Lakshmi's face 

Comes welcome, white, and warm ! 

O thou, who to great Lakshmi 

Art like the silvery beam 

Which moon-sick chakors feed upon 



THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 

By Jumna's silent stream, 

To thee this hymn ascendeth, 

That Jayadev doth sing, 

Of worship, love, and mystery ; 

High Lord and heavenly King ! 

And unto whoso hears it 

Do thou a blessing bring 

Whose neck is gilt with yellow dust 

From lilies that did cling 

Beneath the breasts of Lakshmi, 

A girdle soft and sweet, 

When in divine embracing 

The lips of Gods did meet ; 

And the beating heart above 

Of thee Dread Lord of Heaven ! 

She left that stamp of love 

By such deep sign be given 

Prays Jayadev, the glory 

And the secret and the spells 

Which close-hid in this story 

Unto wise ears he tells. 

END. OF INTRODUCTION. 



( 9 ) 



SARGA THE FIRST. 



SAMODADAMODARO. 

THE SPORTS OF KRISHNA. 

BEAUTIFUL Eadba, jasmine-bosomed Eadha, 
All in the Spring-time waited by the wood 
For Krishna fair, Krishna the all-forgetful, 
Krishna with earthly love's false fire consuming 
And some one of her maidens sang this song : 

( What follows is to the Music VASANTA and the Mode 
YATI.) 

I know where Krishna tarries in these early days of 

Spring, 
When every wind from warm Malay brings fragrance 

on its wing ; 



10 THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 

Brings fragrance stolen far away from thickets of the 

clove, 
In jungles where the bees hum and the Koil flutes her 

love; 

He dances with the dancers, of a merry morrice one, 
All in the budding Spring-time, for 'tis sad to be alone. 

I know how Krishna passes these hours of blue and gold, 
When parted lovers sigh to meet and greet and closely 

hold 
Hand fast in hand ; and every branch upon the Vakul- 

tree 
Droops downward with a hundred blooms, in every 

bloom a bee ; 
He is dancing with the dancers to a laughter-moving 

tone, 
In the soft awakening Spring-time, when 'tis hard to 

live alone. 

Where Kroona-flowers, that open at a lover's lightest 

tread, 
Break, and, for shame at what they hear, from white 

blush modest red ; 



THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. n 

And all the spears on all the boughs of all the Ketuk- 

glades 
Seem ready darts to pierce the hearts of wandering 

youths and maids ; 
'Tis there thy Krishna dances till the merry drum is 

done, 
All in the sunny Spring-time, when who can live alone ? 

Where the breaking forth of blossom on the yellow 

Keshra-sprays 

Dazzles like Kama's sceptre, whom all the world obeys; 
And Patal-buds fill drowsy bees from pink delicious 

bowls, 
As Kama's nectared goblet steeps in languor human 

souls ; 
There he dances with the dancers, and of Radha thinketh 

none, 
All in the warm new Spring-tide, when none will live 

alone. 

Where the breath of waving MMhvi pours incense 

through the grove, 
And silken Mogras lull the sense with essences of 

love, 



12 THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 

The silken-soft pale Mogra, whose perfume fine and faint 
Can melt the coldness of a maid, the sternness of a 

saint 
There dances with those dancers thine other self, thine 

Own, 
All in the languorous Spring-time, when none will live 

alone. 

Where as if warm lips touched sealed eyes and waked 

them all the bloom 

Opens upon the mangoes to feel the sunshine come ; 
And Atimuktas wind their arms of softest green about, 
Clasping the stems, while calm and clear great Jumna 

spreadeth out ; 
There dances and there laughs thy Love, with damsels 

many an one, 
In the rosy days of Spring-time, for he will not live 

alone. 

Mark this song of Jayadev ! 
Deep as pearl in ocean-wave 
Lurketh in its lines a wonder 
Which the wise alone will ponder : 



THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 13 

Though it seemeth of the earth, 
Heavenly is the music's birth ; 
Telling darkly of delights 
In the wood y of wasted nights, 
Of witless days, and fruitless love, 
And false pleasures of the grove, 
And rash passions of the prime, 
And those dances of Spring-time ; 
Time, which seems so subtle-sweet, 
Time, which pipes to dancing-feet, 
Ah ! so softly ah ! so sweetly 
TJiat among tJwse wood-maids featly 
Krishna cannot choose but dance, 
Letting pass life's greater chance. 

* 
Yet the winds that sigh so 

As they stir the rose, 
Wake a sigh from Krishna 

Wistfuller than those ; 
All their faint breaths swinging 

The creepers to and fro 
Pass like rustling arrows 

Shot from Kama's bow : 



14 THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 

Thus among the dancers 
What those zephyrs bring 

Strikes to Krishna's spirit 
Like a darted sting. 

And all as if far wandered 

The traveller should hear 
The bird of home, the Koi'l, 

With nest-notes rich and clear ; 
And there should come one moment 

A blessed fleeting dream 
Of the bees among the mangoes 

Beside his native stream ; 
So flash those sudden yearnings, 

That sense of a dearer thing, 

The love and lack of Eadha 

Upon his soul in Spring. 

Then she, the maid of Eadha, spake again, ; 
And pointing far away between the leaves 
Guided her lovely Mistress where to look, 
And note how Krishna wantoned in the wood 
Now with this one, now that ; his heart, her prize, 



THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 



Panting with foolish passions, and his eyes 
Beaming with too much love for those fair < 
Fair, but not so as Eadha ; and she sang : 



(What follows is to the Music EAMAGIR! and the Mode 
YATI.) 

See, Lady ! how thy Krishna passes these idle hours 
Decked forth in fold of woven gold, and crowned with 

forest-flowers ; 
And scented with the sandal, and gay with gems of 

price 
Eubies to mate his laughing lips, and diamonds like his 

eyes ; 
In the company of damsels,* who dance and sing and 

play, 
Lies Krishna, laughing, toying, dreaming his Spring away. 

One, with star-blossomed champak wreathed, wooes 

him to rest his head 
On the dark pillow of her breast so tenderly outspread ; 



* It will be observed that the "Gopis" here personify the five 
senses. Lassen says, " Manifestum est puettis istis nil aliud significari 
quam res sensiles." 



16 THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 

And o'er his brow with roses blown she fans a fragrance 

rare, 

That falls on the enchanted sense like rain in thirsty air, 
While the company of damsels wave many an odorous 

spray, 
And Krishna, laughing, toying, sighs the soft Spring 

away. 

Another, gazing in his face, sits wistfully apart, 
Searching it with those looks of love that leap from 

heart to heart ; 
Her eyes afire with shy desire, veiled by their lashes 

black 
Speak so that Krishna cannot choose but send the 

message back, 

In the company of damsels whose bright eyes in a ring 
Shine round him with soft meanings in the merry light 

of Spring. 

The third one of that dazzling band of dwellers in the 

wood 
Body and bosom panting with the pulse of youthful 

blood 



THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 17 

Leans over him, as in his ear a lightsome thing to 

speak, 
And then with leaf-soft lip imprints a kiss below his 

cheek ; 

A kiss that thrills, and Krishna turns at the silken touch 
To give it back ah, Eadha ! forgetting thee too much. 

And one with arch smile becokns him away from 
Jumna's banks, 

Where the tall bamboos bristle like spears in battle- 
ranks, 

And plucks his cloth to make him come into the mango- 
shade, 

Where the fruit is ripe and golden, and the milk and 
cakes are laid : 

Oh! golden-red the mangoes, and glad the feasts of 
Spring, 

And fair the flowers to lie upon, and sweet the dancers 



Sweetest of all that Temptress who dances for him now 
With subtle feet which part and meet in the Kas- 
measure slow, 



1 8 THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 

To the chime of silver bangles and the beat of rose-leaf 

hands, 
And pipe and lute and cymbal played by the woodland 

bands ; 
So that wholly passion-laden eye, ear, sense, soul o'er- 

come 
Krishna is theirs in the forest; his heart forgets its home. 

Krishna, made for heavenly things, 

'Mid those woodland singers sings; 

With those dancers dances featly, 

Gives back soft embraces sweetly; 

Smiles on that one, toys with this, 

Glance for glance and kiss for kiss ; 

Meets the merry damsels fairly, 

Plays the round of folly rarely, 

Zapped in milk-warm spring-time weather, 

He and those brown girls together. 

And this shadowed earthly love 
In the twilight of the grove, 
Dance and song and soft caresses, 
Meeting looks and tangled tresses, 



THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 19 

Jayadev the same hath writ, 

That ye might have gain of it, 

Sagely its deep sense conceiving 

And its inner light believing ; 

How that Love the mighty Master, 

Lor A of all the stars that duster 

In the sky, swiftest and slowest, 

Lord of highest, Lard of lowest 

Manifests himself to mortals, 

Winning them towards the portals * 

Of his secret House, the gates 

Of that bright Paradise which waits 

The wise in love. Ah, human creatures ! 

Even your phantasies are teachers. 

Mighty Love makes sweet in seeming 

Even Krishna's woodland dreaming ; 

Mighty Love sways all alike 

From self to selflessness. Oh ! strike 

From your eyes the veil, and see 

What Love willeth Him to be 

Who in error y but in grace, 

Sitteth with that lotus-face, 

And those eyes whose rays of heaven 

Unto phantom-eyes are given; 



20* THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 

Holding feasts of foolish mirth 
With these Visions of the earth ; 
Learning love, and love imparting ; 
Yet with sense of toss upstarting : 
For the cloud that veils the fountains 
Underneath the Sandal mountains, 
How as if the sunshine drew 
All its being to the Hue 
It takes flight, and seeks to rise 
High into the purer skies, 
High into the snow and frost, 
On the shining summits lost ! 
Ah ! and how the Roll's strain 
Smites the traveller with pain, 
When the mango blooms in spring, 
And " Koohoo" " Koohoo" they sing 
Pain of pleasures not yet won, 
Pain of journeys not yet done, 
Pain of toiling without gaining, 
Pain, 'mid gladness, of still paining. 

But may He guide us all to glory high 
Who laughed when Radha glided, hidden, by, 



THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 21 

And all among those damsels free and bold 
Touched Krishna with a soft mouth, kind and cold ; 
And like the others, leaning on his breast, 
Unlike the others, left there Love's ujirest ; 
And like the others, joining in his song, 
Unlike the others, made him silent long. 

(If ere ends that Sarga of the Gita Govinda, entitled 
SAMODADAMODARO.) 



SARGA THE SECOND. 



KLESHAKESHAVO. 

THE PENITENCE OF KKISHNA. 

THUS lingered Krishna in the deep, green wood, 
And gave himself, too prodigal, to those ; 
But Eadha, heart-sick at his falling-off, 
Seeing her heavenly beauty slighted so, 
Withdrew ; and, in a bower of Paradise 
Where nectarous blossoms wove a shrine of shade, 
Haunted by birds and bees of unknown skies 
She sate deep-sorrowful, and sang this strain : 

( What follows is to the Music GuRJJARl and the Mode 
YATL) 

Ah, my Beloved ! taken with those glances, 
Ah, my Beloved ! dancing those rash dances, 



THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 23 

Ah, Minstrel ! playing wrongful strains so well ; 
Ah, Krishna ! Krishna, with the honeyed lip ! 
Ah, Wanderer into foolish fellowship ! 

My Dancer, my Delight ! I love thee still. 

O Dancer ! strip thy peacock-crown away, 
Bise ! thou whose forehead is the star of day, 

With beauty for its silver halo set ; 
Come ! thou whose greatness gleams beneath its shroud 
Like Indra's rainbow shining through the cloud 

Come, for I love thee, my Beloved ! yet. 

Must love thee cannot choose but love thee ever, 
My best Beloved ! set on this endeavour, 

To win thy tender heart and earnest eye 
From lips but sadly sweet, from restless bosoms, 
To mine, Krishna with the mouth of blossoms ! 

To mine, thou soul of Krishna ! yet I sigh 

Half hopeless, thinking of myself forsaken, 
And thee, dear Loiterer, in the wood overtaken 
With passion for those bold and wanton ones, 



24 THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 

Who knit thine arms as poison-plants gripe trees 
With twining cords their flowers the braveries- 

That flash in the green gloom, sparkling stars and 
stones. 



My Prince ! my Lotus-faced ! my woe ! my love ! 
Whose broad brow, with the tilka-spot above, 

Shames the bright moon at full with fleck of cloud ; 
Thou to mistake so little for so much ! 
Thou, Krishna, to be palm to palm with such ! 

Soul made for my joys, pure, perfect, proud ! 

Ah, my Beloved ! in thy darkness dear ; 
Ah, Dancer ! with the jewels in thine ear, 
Swinging to music of a loveless love ; 

my Beluved ! in thy fall so high 
That angels, sages, spirits of the sky 

Linger about thee, watching in the grove. 

1 will be patient still, and draw thee ever, 
My one Beloved, sitting by the river 

Under the thick kadambas with that throng : 



THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 25 

Will there not come an end to earthly madness ? 
Shall I not, past the sorrow, have the gladness ? 
Must not the love-light shine for him ere long ? 

Shine, thou Light by Eadha given, 
Shine, thou splendid star of heaven ! 
Be a lamp to Krishna's feet, 
Show to all hearts secrets sweet, 
Of the wonder and the love 
Jayadev hath writ above. 
Be the quick Interpreter 
Unto wisest ears of her 
Who always sings to all, " I wait, 
He loveth still who loveth late. 39 

For (sang on that high Lady in the shade) 
My soul for tenderness, not blame, was made ; 

Mine eyes look through his evil to his good ; 
My heart coins pleas for him ; my fervent thought 
Prevents what he will say when these are naught, 

And that which I am shall be understood. 

Then spake she to her maiden wistfully 



26 THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 

( What follows is to the Music MiLAVAGAUDA and the 
Mode EKATAL!) 

Go to him, win him hither, whisper low 
How he may find me if he searches well ; 

Say, if he will joys past his hope to know 
Await him here ; go now to him, and tell 

Where Eadha is, and that henceforth she charms 
His spirit to her arms. 

Yes, go ! say, if lie will, that he may come 

May come, my love, my longing, my desire ; 
e May come forgiven, shriven, to me his home, 

And make his happy peace ; nay, and aspire 
To uplift Kadha's veil, and learn at length 

What love is in its strength. 

Lead him ; say softly I shall chide his blindness, 
And vex him with my angers ; yet add this, 

He shall not vainly sue for loving-kindness, 
Nor miss to see me close, nor lose the bliss 

That lives upon my lip, nor be denied 

The rose-throne at my side. 



THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 27 

Say that I Radha in my bower languish 
All widowed, till he find the way to me ; 

Say that mine eyes are dim, my breast all anguish, 
Until with gentle murmured shame I see 

His steps come near, his anxious pleading face 
Bend for my pardoning grace. 

While I what, did he deem light loves so tender, 
To tarry for them when the vow was made 

To yield him up my bosom's maiden splendour, 
And fold him in my fragrance, and unbraid 

My shining hair for him, and clasp him close 

To the gold heart of his Rose ? 

And sing him strains which only spirits know, 
And make him captive with the silk- soft chain 

Of twinned- wings brooding round him, and bestow 
Kisses of Paradise, as pure as rain ; 

My gems, my moonlight-pearls, my girdle-gold, 
Cymbaling music bold ? 

While gained for ever, I shall dare to grow 
life to life with him, in the realms divine ; 



28 THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 

And Love's large cup at happy overflow, 
Yet ever to be filled his eyes and mine 
Will meet in that glad look, when Time's great gate 
Closes and shuts out Fate. 



Listen to the unsaid things 
Of the song that Eadha sings, 
For the soul draws near to bliss, 
As it comprehendeth this. 
I am Jayadev, who write 

All this subtle-rich delight 

* 
For your teaching. Ponder, then, 

What it tells to Gods and men. 
Err not, watching Krishna gay, 
With those brown girls all at play ; 
Understand how Radha charms 
Her wandering lover to her arms, 
Waiting with divinest love 
Till his dream ends in the grove. 

For even now (she sang) I see him pause, 
Heart-stricken with the waste of heart he makes 



THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 29 

Amid them ; all the bows of their bent brows 

Wound him no more : no more for all their sakes 
Plays he one note upon his amorous lute, 

But lets the strings lie mute. 

Pensive, as if his parted lips should say 

" My feet with the dances are weary, 

The music has dropped from the song, 
There is no more delight in the lute-strings, 

Sweet Shadows ! what thing has gone wrong ? 
The wings of the wind have left fanning 

The palms of the glade ; * 

They are dead, and the blossoms seem dying 

In the place where we played. 

" We will play no more, beautiful Shadows ! 

A fancy came solemn and sad, 
More sweet, with unspeakable longings, 

Than the best of the pleasures we had : 
I am not now the Krishna who kissed you ; 

That exquisite dream, 
The Vision I saw in my dancing 

Has spoiled what you seem. 



30 THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 

" Ah ! delicate phantoms that cheated 

With eyes that looked lasting and true, 
I awake, I have seen her, my angel 

Farewell to the wood and to you ! 
Oh, whisper of wonderful pity ! 

Oh, fair face that shone ! 
Though thou be a vision, Divinest ! 

This vision is done." 

(Here ends that Sarga of the Cfita Govinda entitled 
KLESHAKESHAVO.) 



SARGA THE THIRD. 



MUGDHAMADHUSUDANO. 

KRISHNA TROUBLED. p 

THEREAT, as one who welcomes to her throne 
A new-made Queen, and brings before it bound 
Her enemies, so Krishna in his heart 
Throned Kadha ; and all treasonous follies chained- 
He played no more with those first play-fellows : 
But, searching through the shadows of the grove 
For loveliest Eadha, when he found her not, 
Faint with the quest, despairing, lonely, lorn, 
And pierced with shame for wasted love and days, 
He sate by Jumna, where the canes are thick, 
And sang to the wood-echoes words like these : 



32 THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 

(What follows is to the Music GtfRJJAftl and to the Mode 

YATI.) 

Eadha, Enchantress ! Eadha, queen of all ! 

Gone lost, because she found me sinning here ; 
And I so stricken with my foolish fall, 

I could not stay her out of shame and fear ; 

She will not hear ; 

In her disdain and grief vainly I call. 

And if she heard, what would she do ? what say ? 

How could Trnake it good that I forgot ? 
What profit was it to me, night and day, 

To live, love, dance, and dream, having her not ? 

Soul without spot ! 
I wronged thy patience, till it sighed away. 

Sadly I know the truth. Ah ! even now 
Bemembering that one look beside the river, 

Softer the vexed eyes seem, and the proud brow 
Than lotus-leaves when the bees make them quiver. 
My love for ever ! 

Too late is Krishna wise too far art thou ! 



THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 33 

Yet all day long in my deep heart I woo thee, 

And all night long with thee my dreams are sweet ; 

Why, then, so vainly must my steps pursue thee ? 
Why can I never reach thee, to entreat, 
Low at thy feet, 

Dear vanished Splendour ! till my tears subdue thee ? 

Surpassing One ! I knew thou didst not brook 
Half-hearted worship, and a love that wavers ; 

Haho ! there is the wisdom I mistook, 

Therefore I seek with desperate endeavours ; 
That fault dissevers 

Me from my heaven, astray condemned forsook ! 

And yet I seem to feel, to know, thee near me ; 

Thy steps make music, measured music, near ; 
Eadha ! my Eadha ! will not sorrow clear me ? 

Shine once ! speak one word pitiful and dear ! 

Wilt thou not hear ? 
Canst thou because I did forget forsake me ? 

Forgive ! the sin is sinned, is past, is over ; 

No thought I think shall do thee wrong again ; 

c 



34 THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 

Turn thy dark eyes again upon thy lover, 
Bright Spirit ! or I perish of this pain. 

Loving again ! 
In dread of doom to love, but not recover. 

So did Krishna sing and sigh 

By the river-bank; and /, 

Jayadev of Kinduvilva t 

Resting as the moon of silver 

Sits upon the solemn ocean 

On full faith, in deep devotion ; 

Tell it that ye may perceive 

now the heart must fret and grieve ; 

How the soul 'doth tire of earth, 

Wlien the love from Heav'n hath birth. 

For (sang he on) I am no foe of thine, 

There is no black snake, Kama ! in my hair ; 
Blue lotus-bloom, and not the poisoned brine, 

Shadows my neck ; what stains my bosom bare, 

Thou God unfair ! 
Is sandal-dust, not ashes ; nought of mine 



THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 35 

Makes me like Shiva that them, Lord of Love ! 

Shouldst strain thy string at me and fit thy dart ; 
This world is thine let be one breast thereof 

Which bleeds already, wounded to the heart 

With lasting smart, 
Shot from those brows that did my sin reprove. 

Thou gavest her those black brows for a bow 

Arched like thine own, whose pointed arrows seem 

Her glances, and the underlids that go 

So firm and fine its string ? Ah, fleeting gleam ! 
Beautiful dream ! 

Small need of Kama's help hast thou, I trow, 

To smite me to the soul with love ; but set 
Those arrows to their silken cord ! enchain 

My thoughts in that loose hair ! let thy lips, wet 
With dew of heaven as bimba-buds with rain, 
Bloom precious pain 

Of longing in my heart ; and, keener yet, 

The heaving of thy lovely, angry bosom, 
Pant to my spirit things unseen, unsaid ; 



36 THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 

But if thy touch, thy tones, if the dark blossom 
Of thy dear face, thy jasmine-odours shed 

From feet to head, 
If these be all with me, canst thou be far be fled ? 

So sang he y and I pray that whoso hears 

The music of his burning hopes and fears, 

That whoso sees this vision by the River 

Of Krishna, Hari, (can we name him ever ?) 

And marks his ear-ring rubies swinging slow, 

As he sits still, unheedful, bending low 

To play this tune upon his lute, while all 

Listen to catch the sadness musical ; 

And Krishna wotteth nought, but, with set face 

Turned full toward Radha's, sings on in that place ; 

May all such souls prays Jayadev be wise 

To learn the wisdom which hereunder lies. 



(Here ends that Sarga of the Gita Govinda entitled 

MUGDHAMADIIUSUDANO.) 



( 37 ) 



SARGA THE FOURTH. 



SNIGDHAMADHUSUDANO. 

KRISHNA CHEERED. 

THEN she whom Radha sent came to the canes 
The canes beside the river where he lay 
With listless limbs and spirit weak from love ; 
And she sang this to Krishna wistfully : 

( What follows is to the Music KARNATA and the Mode 
EKATAI!) 

Art thou sick for Eadha ? she is sad in turn, 

Heaven foregoes its blessings, if it holds not thee ; 

All the cooling fragrance of sandal she doth spurn, 
Moonlight makes her mournful with radiance silvery; 



38 THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 

Even the southern breeze blown fresh from pearly seas, 

Seems to her but tainted by a dolorous brine ; 
And for thy sake discontented, with a great love over- 
laden, 

Her soul comes here beside thee, and sitteth down 
with thine. 

Her soul conies here beside thee, and tenderly and true 
It weaves a subtle mail of proof to ward off sin and 

pain; 

A breastplate soft as lotus-leaf, with holy tears for dew, 
To guard thee from the things that hurt ; and then 

'tis gone again 

To strew a blissful place with the richest buds that grace 
Kama's sweet world, a meeting-spot with rose and 

jasmine fair, 
For the hour when, well-contented, with a love no 

longer troubled, 

Thou shalt find the way to Eadha, and finish sorrows 
there. 

But now her lovely face is shadowed by her fears ; 
Her glorious eyes are veiled and dim like moonlight 
in eclipse 



THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 39 

By breaking rain-clouds, Krishna ! yet she paints you 

in her tears 
With tender thoughts not Krishna, but brow and 

breast and lips 

And form and mien a King, a great and god-like thing ; 
And then with bended head she asks grace from the 

Love Divine, 
To keep thee discontented with the phantoms thou for- 

swearest, 
Till she may win her glory, and thou be raised to thine. 

Softly now she sayeth, 

" Krishna, Krishna, come ! " 
Lovingly she prayeth, 

" Fair moon, light him home." 
Yet if Hari helps not, 

Moonlight cannot aid ; 
Ah ! the woeful Eadha ! 

Ah ! the forest shade ! 

Ah ! if Hari guide not, 

' Moonlight is as gloom ; 
Ah ! if moonlight help not, 
How shall Krishna come ? 



40 THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 

Sad for Krishna grieving 

In the darkened grove ; 
Sad for Eadha weaving 

Dreams of fruitless love ! 

Strike soft strings to this soft measure, 
If thine ear would catch its treasure ; 
Slowly dance to this deep song, 
Let its meaning float along 
With grave paces, since it tells 
Of a love that sweetly dwells 
^ In a tender distant glory, 
Past all faults of mortal story. 

(Wliat follows is to the Music DESHAGA and the Mode 
EKATAL!.) 

Krishna, till thou come unto her, faint she lies with 

love and fear ; 
Even the jewels of her necklet seem a load too great to 

bear. 

i 

Krishna, till thou come unto her, all the sandal and the 

flowers 
Vex her with their pure perfection though they* grow in 

heavenly bowers. 



THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 41 

Krishna, till thou come unto her, fair albeit those 

bowers may be, 
Passion burns her, and love's fire fevers her for lack of 

thee. 

Krishna, till thou come unto her, those divine lids, dark 

and tender, 
Droop like lotus-leaves in rain-storms, dashed and heavy 

in their splendour. 

Krishna, till thou come unto her, that rose-couch which 

she hath spread 
Saddens with its empty place, its double pillow for one 

head. 
Krishna, till thou come unto her, from her palms she 

will not lift 

The dark face hidden deep within them like the moon 
in cloudy rift. 

Krishna, till thou come unto her, angel though she be, 

thy Love 
Sighs and suffers, waits and watches joyless 'mid those 

joys above. 



42 THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 

Krishna, till thou come unto her, with the comfort of 

thy kiss 
Deeper than thy loss, Krishna! must be loss of 

Kadha's bliss. 

Krishna, while thou didst forget her her, thy life, thy 

gentle fate 
Wonderful her waiting was, her pity sweet, her patience 

great. 

Krishna, come ! 'tis grief untold to grieve her shame 

to let her sigh ; 
Come, for she is sick with love, and thou her only 

remedy. 

So she sang, and Jayadeva 

Prays for all, and prays for ever, 

That Great Hari may bestow 

Utmost bliss of loving so 

On us all ; that one who wore 

The herdsman's form, and heretofore, 

To save the shepherd's threatened flock, 

Up from the earth reared the huge rock 



THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 43 

Bestow it with a gracious hand, 
Albeit, amid the woodland land, 
Clinging close in fond caresses 
Krishna gave them ardent kisses, 
Taking on his lips divine 
Earthly stamp and woodland sign. 



(Here ends that Sarga of the Gita Govinda entitled 
SNIGDIIAMADHUSUDANO). 



( 44 ) 



SARGA THE FIFTH. 



SAKANDKSHAPUNDARIKAKSHO. 

THE LONGINGS OF KRISHNA. 

" SAY I am here ! oh, if she pardons me, 
Say where I am, and win her softly hither." 
So Krishna to the maid ; and willingly 
She came again to Radha, and she sang : 

( What follows is to the Music DESHIVARAD! and the 
Mode RUPAKA.) 

Low whispers the wind from Malaya 

Overladen with love ; 
On the hills all the grass is burned yellow ; 

And the trees in the grove 



THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 45 

Droop with tendrils that mock by their clinging 

The thoughts of the parted ; 
And there lies, sore-sighing for thee, 

Thy love, altered-hearted. 

To him the moon's icy-chill silver 

Is a sun at midday ; 
The fever he burns with is deeper 

Than starlight can stay : 
Like one who falls stricken by arrows, 

With the colour departed 
From all but his red wounds, so lies 

Thy love, bleeding-hearted. 

To the music the banded bees make him 

He closeth his ear ; 
In the blossoms their small horns are blowing 

The honey-song clear ; 
But as if every sting to his bosom 

Its smart had imparted, 
Low lies by the edge of the river, 

Thy love, aching-hearted. 



46 THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 

By the edge of the river, far wandered 

From his once beloved bowers, 
And the haunts of his beautiful playmates, 

And the beds strewn with flowers ; 
Now thy name is his playmate that only ! 

And the hard rocks upstarted 
From the sand make the couch where he lies, 

Thy Krishna, sad-hearted. 

Oh may Hari fill each soul, 
As these gentle verses roll 
Telling of the anguish borne 
By kindred ones asunder torn ! 
Oh may Hari unto each 
All the lore of loving teach, 
All the pain and all the bliss; 
Jayadeva prayeth this f 

Yea, Lady ! in the self-same spot he waits 
Where with thy kiss thou taught'st him utmost love, 
And drew him, as none else draws, with thy look ; 
And all day long, and all night long, his cry 
Is " Eadha, Kadha," like a spell said o'er ; 



THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 47 

And in his heart there lives no wish nor hope 
Save only this, to slake his spirit's thirst 
Tor Radha's love on RadWs lips ; and find 
Peace in the immortal beauty of thy brow. 

( WJiat follows is to the Music GuRJ JAR! and the Mode 
EKATAL!) 

Mistress, sweet and bright and holy ! 

Meet him in that place ; 
Change his cheerless melancholy 

Into joy and grace ; 
If thou hast forgiven, vex not ; 

If thou lovest, go ; 
Watching ever by the river," 

Krishna listens low : 

Listens low, and on his reed there 

Softly sounds thy name, 
Making even mute things plead there 

For his hope : 'tis shame 
That, while winds are welcome to him, 

If from thee they blow, 
Mournful ever by the river 

Krishna waits thee so ! 



48 THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 

When a bird's wing stirs the roses, 

When a leaf falls dead, 


Twenty times he recomposes 

The flower-seat he has spread : 
Twenty times, with anxious glances 

Seeking thee in vain, 
Sighing ever by the river, 

Krishna droops again. 

Loosen from thy foot the bangle, 

Lest its golden bell, 
With a tiny, tattling jangle, 

Any false tale tell : 
If thou fearest that the moonlight 

Will thy glad face know, 
Draw those dark braids lower, Lady ! 

But to Krishna go. 



Swift and still as lightning's splendour 

Let thy beauty come, 
Sudden, gracious, dazzling, tender, 

To his arms its home : 



THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 49 

Swift as Indra's yellow lightning, 

Shining through the night, 
Glide to Krishna's lonely bosom, 

Take him love and light. 



Grant, at last, love's utmost measure, 

Giving, give the whole ; 
Keep back nothing of the treasure 

Of thy priceless soul : 
Hold with both hands out unto him 

Thy chalice, let him drain 
The nectar of its dearest draught, 

Till not a wish remain. 

Only go the stars are setting, 

And thy Krishna grieves ; 
Doubt and anger quite forgetting, 

Hasten through the leaves : 
Wherefore didst thou lead him heav'nward 

But for this thing's sake ? 
Comfort him with pity, Kadha ! 

Or his heart must break. 



50 THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 

But while Jayadeva writes 
This rare tale of deep delights 
Jayadev, whose heart is given 

Unto Hari y Lord in Heaven 
See that ye too > as ye repd, 

With a glad and humble heed, 
Bend your "brows before His face, 
That ye may have bliss and grace. 

And then the Maid, compassionate, sang on 

Lady, most sweet ! 

For thy coming feet 
He listens in the wood, with love sore-tried ; 

Faintly sighing, 

Like one a-dying, 
He sends his thoughts afoot to meet his bride. 

Ah, silent one ! 

Sunk is the sun, 
The darkness falls as deep as Krishna's sorrow ; 

The chakor's strain 

Is not more vain 

Than mine, and soon gray dawn will bring white 
morrow. 



THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 51 

And thine own bliss 

Delays by this ; 
The utmost of thy heaven comes only'so 

When, with hearts beating 

And passionate greeting, 
Parting is over, and the parted grow 

One one for ever ! 

And the old endeavour 
To be so blended is assuaged at last ; 

And the glad tears raining 

Have nought remaining 
Of doubt or plaining ; and the dread has passed 

Out of each face, 

In the close embrace, 
That by-and-by embracing will be over; 

The ache that causes 

Those mournful pauses 
In bowers of earth between lover and lover : 

To be no more felt, 
To fade, to melt 
In the strong certainty of joys immortal ; 



52 THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 

In the glad meeting, 
And quick sweet greeting 
Of lips that close beyond Time's shadowy portal. 

And to thee is given, 

Angel of Heaven ! 
This glory and this joy with Krishna. Go ! 

Let him attain, 

For his long pain, 
The prize it promised, see thee coming slow, 

A vision first, but then 

By glade and glen 
A lovely, loving soul, true to its home ; 

His Queen his Crown his All, 

Hast'ning at last to fall 
Upon his breast, and live there. Eadha, come ! 

Come ! and come thou, Lord of all, 
Unto whom the Three Worlds call ; 
Thou, that didst in angry might, 
Kansa, like a comet, smite ; 
Thou, that in thy passion tender, 
As incarnate spell and splendour, 



THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 53 

Hung on Radha's glorious face 
In the garb of Krishna? s grace 
As above the bloom the bee t 
When the honeyed revelry 
Is too subtle-sweet an one 
Not to hang and dally on ; 
Thou that art the Three Worlds' glory, 
Of life the light, of every story 
The meaning and the mark, of love 
The root and flower, d tJie sky above 
The blue, of bliss the heart, of those, 
The lovers, that which did impose 
The gentle law, that each should be 
The other's Heart n and harmony. 

(Here ends that Sarga of the Gita Govinda entitled 
SAKANDKSHAFUNDAKIKAKSHO.) 



54 ) 



SARGA THE SIXTH. 



DHEISHTAVAIK IfN T 0. 

KRISHNA MADE BOLDER 

BUT seeing that, for all her loving will, 
The flower-soft feet of Kadha had not power 
To leave their place and go, she sped again 
That maiden and to Krishna's eager ears 
Told how it fared with his sweet mistress there. 

( What follows is to the Music GoNDAKraf and the Mode 

EUPAKA.) 

Krishna ! 'tis thou must come, (she sang) 
Ever she waits thee in heavenly bower ; 

The lotus seeks not the wandering bee, 
The bee must find the flower. 



THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 55 

All the wood over her deep eyes roam, 
Marvelling sore where tarries the bee, 

Who leaves such lips of nectar unsought 
As those that blossom for thee. 

Her steps would fail if she tried to come, 
Would falter and fail, with yearning weak ; 

At the first of the road they would falter and pause, 
And the way is strange to seek. 

Find her where she is sitting, then, 
With lotus-blossom on ankle and arm 

Wearing thine emblems, and musing of nought 
But the meeting to be glad, warm. 

To be" but wherefore tarrieth he ? " 

" What can stay or delay him ? go ! 
See if the soul of Krishna comes/' 

Ten times she sayeth to me so ; 

Ten times lost in a languorous swoon, 
" Now he cometh he cometh," she cries ; 

And a love-look lightens her eyes in the gloom, 
And the darkness is sweet with her sighs. 



56 THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 

Till, watching in vain, she glideth again 
Under the shade of the whispering leaves ; 

With a heart too full of its love at last 
To heed how her bosom heaves. 

Sfutll not these fair verses swell 
The number of the wise who dwell 
In the realm of Kama's Hiss ? 
Jayadeva prayeth this, 
Jayadev, the bard of Love, 
Servant of the Gods above. 

Tor all so strong in Heaven itself 

Is Love, that Eadha sits drooping there, 

Her beautiful bosoms panting with thought, 
And the braids drawn back from her ear. 

And angel albeit her rich lips breathe 
Sighs, if sighs were ever so sweet ; 

And if spirits can tremble she trembles now 
From forehead to jewelled feet. 

And her voice of music sinks to a sob, 
And her eyes, like eyes of a mated roe, 



THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 57 

Are tender with looks of yielded love, 
With dreams dreamed long ago ; 



Long long ago, but soon to grow truth, 

To end, and be waking and certain and true ; 

Of which dear surety murmur her lips, 
As the lips of sleepers do : 

And, dreaming, she loosens her girdle-pearls, 
And opens her arms to the empty air, 

Then starts, if a leaf of the champak falls, 
Sighing, " leaf ! is he there ? " 

Why dost thou linger in this dull spot, 
Haunted by serpents and evil for thee ? 

Why not hasten to Nanda's House ? 
It is plain, if thine eyes could see. 

May these words of high endeavour 
Full of grace and gentle favour 
Find out those whose hearts can feel 
What the message did reveal, 



58 THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 

Words that Radha's messenger 

Unto Krishna took from her, 

Slowly guiding him to come 

Through the forest to his twine, 

Guiding him to find the road 

Wliich led though long to Loves abode. 

(Here ends that Sarga of the G-ita Govinda entitled 
DHRISHTAVAIKUNTO.) 



( 59 ) 



SARGA THE SEVENTH. 



VIPEALABDHAVAENANE 
NAGAEANAEAYANO. 

KRISHNA SUPPOSED FALSE. 

MEANTIME the moon, the rolling moon, clomb high, 
And over all Vrindavana it shone ; 
The moon which on the front of gentle night 
Gleams like the chundun-mark on beauty's brow ; 
The conscious moon which hath its silver face 
Marred with the shame of lighting earthly loves : 

And while the round white lamp of earth rose higher, 
And still he tarried, Radha, petulant, 
Sang soft impatience and half-earnest fears : 



60 THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 

( What follows is to the Music MAlAVA and the Mode 

YATI.) 

Tis time ! he comes not ! will he come ? 

Can he leave me thus to pine ? 
Yami M ham sharanam I 

Ah ! what refuge then is mine ? 

For his sake I sought the wood, 
Threaded dark and devious ways ; 

Yami M kam sharanam ! 
Can it be Krishna betrays ? 

Let me die then, and forget 
Anguish, patience, hope, and fear ; 

Yami M kam sharanam ! 
Ah, why have I held him dear ? 

Ah, this soft night torments me, 
Thinking that his faithless arms 

Yami M kam sharanam ! 
Clasp some shadow of my charms. 



THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 61 

Fatal shadow foolish mock ! 

* 
When the great love shone confessed ; 

Yami h$ Team sharanam ! 

Krishna's lotus loads my breast ; 

'Tis too heavy, lacking him ; 

Like a broken flower I am 
Necklets, jewels, what are ye ? 

Yami h& kam sharanam ! 

Yami M ham sharanam ! 

The sky is still, the forest sleeps ; 
Krishna forgets he loves no more ; 
He fails in faith, and Radha weeps. 

JBut the poet Jayadev 
He who is great Hari's slave, 
He who finds asylum sweet 
Only at great Hari's feet ; 
He who for your comfort sings 
All this to the Vinas strings 
Prays that Sadha's tender moan 
In your hearts be thought upon, 



62 THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 

And that all her holy grace 
Live there like the loved one's face. 

Yet, if I wrong him ! (sang she) can he fail ? 

Could any in the wood win back his kisses ? 
Could any softest lips of earth prevail 

To hold him from my arms ? any love-blisses 

Blind him once more to mine ? Soul, my prize ! 

Art thou not merely hindered at this hour ? 
Sore-wearied, wandering, lost ? how otherwise 

Shouldst thou not hasten to the bridal-bower ? 

But seeing far away that Maiden come 

Alone, with eyes cast down and lingering steps, 

Again a little while she feared to hear 

Of Krishna false ; and her quick thoughts took shape 

In a fine jealousy, with words like these 

Something then of earth has held him 

From his home above, 
Some one of those slight deceivers 

Ah, my foolish love ! 



THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 63 

Some new face, some winsome playmate, 

With her hair untied, 
And the blossoms tangled in it, 

Woos him to her side. 

On the dark orbs of her bosom 

Passionately heaved 
Sink and rise the warm, white pearl-strings, 

Oh, my love deceived ! 

Fair ? yes, yes ! the rippled shadow 

Of that midnight hair 
Shows above her brow as clouds do 

O'er the moon most fair : 

And she knows, with wilful paces, 

How to make her zone 
Gleam and please him ; and her ear-rings 

Tinkle love ; and grown 

Coy as he grows fond, she meets him 

With a modest show ; 
Shaming truth with truthful seeming, 

While her laugh light, low 



64 THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 

And her subtle mouth that murmurs, 

And her silken cheek, 
And her eyes, say she dissembles 

Plain as speech could speak. 

Till at length, a fatal victress, 

Of her triumph vain, 
On his neck she lies and smiles there : 

Ah, my Joy ! my Pain ! 

But may Radha's fond annoy, 
And may Krishna's dawning joy, 
Warm and waken love more fit 
Jayadeva prayetli it 
And the griefs and sins assuage 
Of this blind and evil age. 

O Moon ! (she sang) that art so pure and pale, 
Is Krishna wan like thee with lonely waiting ? 

O lamp of love ! art thou the lover's friend, 

And wilt not bring him, my long pain abating ? 

O fruitless moon ! thou dost increase my pain 

O faithless Krishna ! I have striven in vain 



THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 65 

And then, lost in her fancies sad, she moaned 

( What follows is to the Music GUR JJARl and the Mode 
EKATAL!) 

In vain, in vain ! 
Earth will of earth ! I mourn more than I blame ; 

If he had known, he would not sit and paint 
The tilka on her smooth black brow, nor claim 

Quick kisses from her yielded lips false, faint 
False, fragrant, fatal ! Krishna's quest is o'er 
By Jumna's shore ! 

Vain it was vain ! 
The temptress was too near, the heav'n too far ; 

I can but weep because he sits and ties 
Garlands of fire-flowers for her loosened hair, 

And in its silken shadow veils his eyes 
And buries his fond face. Yet I forgave 
By Jumna's wave ! 

Vainly ! all vain ! 
Make then the most of that whereto thou'rt given, 

Feign her thy Paradise thy Love of loves ; 

E 



66 THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 

Say that her eyes are stars, her face the heaven, 

Her bosoms the two worlds, with sandal-groves 
Full-scented, and the kiss-marks ah, thy dream 
By Jumna's stream ! 

It shall be vain ! 

And vain to string the emeralds on her arm, 
And hang the milky pearls upon her neck, 
Saying they are not jewels, but a swarm 

Of crowded, glossy bees, come there to suck 
The rosebuds of her breast, the sweetest flowers 
Of Jumna's bowers. 

That shall be vain ! 

Nor wilt thou so believe thine own blind wooing, 
Nor slake thy heart's thirst even with the cup 
Which at the last she brims for thee, undoing 
Her girdle of carved gold, and yielding up, 
Love's uttermost : brief the poor gain and pride 
By Jumna's tide 

Because still vain 

Is love that feeds on shadow ; vain, as thou dost, 
To look so deep into the phantom eyes 



THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 67 

For that which lives not there ; and vain, as thou must, 

To marvel why the painted pleasure flies, 
When the fair, false wings seemed folded for ever 
By Jumna's river. 

And vain ! yes, vain ! 
For me too is it, having so much striven, 

To see this slight snare take thee, and thy soul 
Which should have climbed to mine, and shared my 

heaven, 

Spent on a lower loveliness, whose whole 
Passion of claim were but a parody 
Of that kept here for thee. 

Ahaha ! vain ! 
For on some isle of Jumna's silver stream 

He gives all that they ask to those hard eyes, 
While mine which are his angel's, mine which gleam 
With light that might have led him to the skies 
That almost led him are eclipsed with tears 
Wailing my fruitless prayers. 

But thou, good Friend, 

Hang not thy head for shame, nor come so slowly, 
As one whose message is too ill to tell ; 



68 THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 

If thou must say Krishna is forfeit wholly 

Wholly forsworn and lost let the grief dwell 
Where the sin doth, except in this sad heart, 
Which cannot shun its part. 

great Hari ! purge from wrong 
The soul of him who writes this song ; 
Purge the souls of those that read 
From every fault of thought and deed ; 
With thy Messed light assuage 
The darkness of this evil age ! 
Jayadev the lard of love, 
Servant of the Gods above, 
Prays it for himself and you 
Gentle hearts who listen ! too. 

Then in this other strain she wailed his loss 

(What follows is to the Music DESHAVARAD! and the 
Mode BUPAKA.) 

She, not Radha, wins the crown 
Whose false lips were dearest ; 



THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 69 

What was distant gain to him 
When sweet loss stood nearest ? 

Love her, therefore, lulled to loss 
On her fatal bosom ; 

Love her with such love as she 
Can give back in the blossom. 

Love her, O thou rash lost soul ! 

With thy thousand graces ; 
Coin rare thoughts into fair words 

For her face of faces ; 
Praise it, fling away for it 

Life's purpose in a sigh, 
All for those lips like flower-leaves, 

And lotus-dark deep eye. 

Nay, and thou shalt be happy too 

Till the fond dream is over ; 
And she shall taste delight to hear 

The wooing of her lover ; 
The breeze that brings the sandal up 

From distant green Malay, 
Shall seem all fragrance in the night, 

All coolness in the day. 



70 THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 

The crescent moon shall seem to swim 

Only that she may see 
The glad eyes of my Krishna gleam, 

And her soft glances he : 
It shall be as a silver lamp 

Set in the sky to show 
The rose-leaf palms that cling and clasp, 

And the breast that beats below. 



The thought of parting shall not lie 

Cold on their throbbing lives, 
The dread of ending shall not chill 

The glow beginning gives ; 
She in her beauty dark shall look 

As long as clouds can be 
As gracious as the rain-time cloud 

Kissing the shining sea. 



And he, amid his playmates old, 

At least a little while, 
Shall not breathe forth again the sigh 

That spoils the song and smile ; 



THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 71 

Shall be left wholly to his choice, 

Free for his pleasant sin, 
With the golden-girdled damsels 

Of the bowers I found him in. 

For me, his Angel, only 

The sorrow and the smart, 
The pale grief sitting on the brow, 

The dead hope in the heart ; 
For me the loss of losing, 

For me the ache and dearth ; 
My king crowned with the wood-flowers ! 

My fairest upon earth ! 

Hari, Lord and King of love ! 
From thy throne of light above 
Stoop to help m, deign to take 
Our spirits to theefor the sake 
Of this song, which speaks the fears 
Of all who weep with Radhas tears. 

But love is strong to pardon, slow to part, 
And still the Lady, in her fancies, sang 



72 THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 

Wind of the Indian stream ! 
A little oh ! a little breathe once more 
The fragrance like his mouth's ! blow from thy shore 
One last word as he fades into a dream ; 

Bodiless Lord of love ! 

Show him once more to me a minute's space, 
My Krishna, with the love-look in his face, 
And then I come to my own place above ; 

I will depart and give 
All back to Fate and her : I will submit 
To thy stern will, and bow myself to it, 
Enduring still, though desolate, to live : 

If it indeed be life, 

Even so resigning, to sit patience-mad, 
To feel the zephyrs burn, the sunlight sad, 
The peace of holy heaven, a restless strife. 

Haho ! what words are these ? 
How can I live and lose him ? how not go 
Whither love draws me for a soul loved so ? 
How yet endure such sorrow ? or how cease ? 



THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 73 

Wind of the Indian wave ! 
If that thou canst, blow poison here, not nard ; 
God of the five shafts ! shoot thy sharpest hard, 
And kill me, Radha, Eadha who forgave ! 

Or, bitter Paver, 

Yamun ! be Yama's sister ! be Death's kin ! 
Swell thy wave up to me and gulf me in, 
Cooling this cruel, burning pain for ever. 

Ah ! if only visions stir 

Grief so passionate in her, 

Wliat divine grief will not take, 

Spirits in heaven for the sake 

Of those who miss love ? Oh, be wise ! 

Mark this story of the skies ; 

Meditate Gfovinda ever, 

Sitting l>y the sacred river, 

Tfie mystic stream, which o'er his feet 

Glides slow, with murmurs low and sweet, 

Till none can tell whether those be 

JBlue lotus-blooms, seen veiledly 

Under the wave, or 'mirrored gems 

Reflected from the diadems 



74 THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 

Bound on the "brows of mighty Gods, 
WTio lean from out their pure abodes, 
And leave their bright felicities 
To guide great Krishna to his sides. 

(Here ends that Sarga of the Gita Govinda entitled 

VlPRALABDHAVARNANE NAGARANARAYANO.) 



( 75 ) 



SARGA THE EIGHTH. 



KHANDITAVAKNANE 
VILAKSHALAKSHMIPATI. 

THE REBUKING OF KRISHNA. 

FOR when the weary night had worn away 

In these vain fears, and the clear morning broke, 

i 

Lo, Krishna ! lo, tjie longed-for of her soul 
Came too ! in the glad light he came, and bent 
His knee, and clasped his hands ; on his dumb lips 
Fear, wonder, joy, passion, and reverence 
Strove for the trembling words, and Eadha knew 
Joy won for him and her ; yet none the less 
A little time she chided him, and sang : 



76 THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 

(What follows is to the Music BHAIRAV! and the Mode 
YATL) 

Krishna ! then thou hast found me ! and thine eyes 

Heavy and sad and stained, as if with weeping ! 
Ah ! is it not that those, which were thy prize, 

So radiant seemed that all night thou wert keeping 
Vigils of tender wooing ? have thy Love ! 

Here is no place for vows broken in making ; 
Thou Lotus-eyed ! thou soul for whom I strove ! 

Go ! ere I listen, my just mind forsaking. 

Krishna ! my Krishna with the woodland-wreath ! 

Return, or I shall soften as I blame ; 
The while thy very lips are dark to the teeth 

With dye that from her lids and lashes came, 
Left on the mouth I touched. Fair traitor ! go ! 

Say not they darkened, lacking food and sleep 
Long waiting for my face ; I turn it so 

Go ! ere I half believe thee, pleading deep ; 

But wilt thou plead, when, like a love-verse printed 
On the smooth polish of an emerald, 



THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 77 

I see the marks she stamped, the kisses dinted 
Large-lettered, by her lips ? thy speech withheld 

Speaks all too plainly ; go, abide thy choice ! 
If thou dost stay, I shall more greatly grieve thee ; 

Not records of her victory ? peace, dear voice ! 
Hence with that godlike brow, lest I believe thee. 

For dar'st thou feign the saffron on thy bosom 

Was not implanted in disloyal embrace ? 
Or that this many-coloured love-tree blossojjf 

Shone not, but yesternight, above her fadeir - 
Comest thou here, so late, to be forgiven, 

thou, in whose eyes Truth was made td^ive 
thou, so worthy else of grace and heaven ? 

thou, so nearly won ? Ere I forgive, 



Go, Krishna ! go ! lest I should think, unwise, 

Thy heart not false, as thy long lingering seems, 
Lest, seeing myself so imaged in thine eyes, 

I shame the name of Pity turn to dreams 
The sacred sound of vows ; make Virtue grudge 

Her praise to Mercy, calling thy sin slight ; 



78 THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 

Go therefore, dear offender ! go ! thy Judge 
Had best not see thee to give sentence right.* 

But may he grant us peace at last and bliss 

Who heard, and smiled to hear, delays like this, 

Delays that dallied ivith a dream come true, 

Fond wilful angers; for the maid laughed too 

To see, as Eadha ended, her hand take 

His dark robe for her veil, and Krishna make 

The word she spoke for parting kindliest sign 

He should not go, but stay. grace divine, 

Be ours too ! Jayadev, the Poet of love, 

Prays it from Hari, lordliest above. 

(Here ends that Sarga of the Git a G-ovinda entitled 
KHANDITAVARNANE VILAKSHALAKSHMIPATI.) 

* The text here is not closely followed. 



( 79 ) 



SARGA THE NINTH. 



KALAHANTAEITAVAENANE 
MUGDHAMUKUNDO. 

THE END OF KRISHNA'S TEIAL. 

YET not quite did the doubts of Eadha die, 

Nor her sweet brows unbend ; but she, the Maid 

Knowing her heart so tender, her soft arms 

Aching to take him in, her rich mouth sad 

For the comfort of his kiss, and these fears false 

Spake yet a little in fair words like these : 

( What follows is to the Music GURJ JARf and the Mode 
YATI.) 

The lesson that thy faithful love has taught him 

He has heard ; 
The wind of spring, obeying thee, hath brought him 

At thy word ; 



8o THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 

What joy in all the three worlds was so precious 

To thy mind ? 
Md kooroo mdnini mdnamayd* 

Ah, be kind ! 

No longer from his earnest eyes conceal 

Thy delights ; 
Lift thy face, and let the jealous veil reveal 

All his rights; 
The glory of thy beauty was but given 

For content ; 
Md kooroo mdnini mdnamayd, 

Oh, relent ! 

Remember, being distant, how he bore thee 

In his heart ; 
Look on him sadly turning from before thee 

To depart ; 
Is he not the soul thou lovedst, sitting lonely 

In the wood ? 
Md kooroo mdnini mdnamayt, 

'Tis not good ! 

* My proud one ! do not indulge in scorn. 



THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 81 

He who grants thee high delight in bridal-bower 

Pardons long ; 
What the gods do love may do at such an hour 

Without wrong ; 
Why weepest thou ? why keepest thou in anger 

Thy lashes down ? 
Md kooroo mdnini mdnamayd, 

Do not frown ! 

Lift thine eyes now, and look on him, bestowing, 

Without speech ; 
Let him pluck at last the flower so sweetly growing 

In his reach ; 
The fruit of lips, of loving tones, of glances 

That forgive ; 
Md kooroo mdnini mdnamay&, 

Let him live ! 

Let him speak with thee, and pray to thee, and 
prove thee 

All his truth ; 
Let his silent loving lamentation move thee 

Asking ruth ; 



82 THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 

How knowest thou ? Ah, listen, dearest Lady, 

He is there ; 
Md kooroo mdnini mdnamaye, 

Thou must hear ! 

rare voice, which is a spell 
Unto all on earth who dwell ! 
rich voice of rapturous love, 
Making melody above ! 
Krishna's, Hari's one in two, 
Sound these mortal verses through ! 
Sound like tJiat soft flute which made 
Such a magic in the shade 
Calling deer-eyed maidens nigh, 
Waking wish and stirring sigh, 
Thrilling Hood and melting breasts, 
Whispering love's divine unrests, 
Winning blessings to descend, 
Bringing earthly ills to end ; 
Be thou heard in this song now 
Thou, the great Enchantment, thou ! 

(Here ends that Sarga of the Gita Govinda entitled 

KALAH ANTARITAVAKNAN E MUGDHAMUKUNDO.) 



SARGA THE TENTH. 



MAN IN I V AEN ANE 
CHATURACHATURBHUJO. 

KRISHNA IN PARADISE. 

BUT she, abasing still her glorious eyes, 

And still not yielding all her face to him, 

Kelented ; till with softer upturned look 

She smiled, while the Maid pleaded ; so thereat 

Came Krishna nearer, and his eager lips 

Mixed sighs with words in this fond song lie sang: 

(What follows is to the Music DESHiYAVAKADl and the 
Mode ASHTATALI.) 

angel of my hope ! my heart's home ! 
My fear is lost in love, my love in fear ; 



84 THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 

This bids me trust my burning wish, and come, 

That checks me with its memories, drawing near : 
Lift up thy look, and let the thing it saith 
End fear with grace, or darken love to death. 

Or only speak once more, for though thou slay me, 
Thy heavenly mouth must move, and I shall hear 

Dulcet delights of perfect music sway me 
Again again that voice so blest and dear ; 

Sweet Judge ! the prisoner prayeth for his doom 

That he may hear his fate divinely come. 

Speak once more ! then thou canst not choose but show 
Thy mouth's unparalleled and honeyed wonder 

Where, like pearls hid in red-lipped shells, the row 
Of pearly teeth thy rose-red lips lie under ; 

Ah me ! I am that bird that woos the moon, 

And pipes poor fool ! to make it glitter soon. 

Yet hear me on because I cannot stay 

The passion of my soul, because my gladness 

Will pour forth from my heart ; since that far day 
When through the mist of all my sin and sadness 



THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 85 

Thou didst vouchsafe Surpassing One ! to break, 
All else I slighted for thy noblest sake. 

Thou, thou hast been my blood, my breath, my being ; 

The pearl to plunge for in the sea of life ; 
The sight to strain for, past the bounds of seeing ; 

The victory to win through longest strife ; 
My Queen ! my crownfed Mistress ! my sphered bride ! 
Take this for truth, that what I say beside 

Of bold love grown full-orbed at sight of thee 
May be forgiven with a quick remission ; 

For, thou divine fulfilment of all hope ! 

Thou all-undreamed completion of the vision ! 

I gaze upon thy beauty, and my fear 

Tasses as clouds do, when the moon shines clear. 

So if thou'rt angry still, this shall avail, 

Look straight at me, and let thy bright glance wound 

me; 
Fetter me ! gyve me ! lock me in the gaol 

Of thy delicious arms ; make fast around me 
The silk-soft manacles of wrists and hands, 
Then kill me ! I shall never break those bands. 



86 THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 

The starlight jewels flashing on thy breast 
Have not my right to hear thy beating heart ; 

The happy jasmine-buds that clasp thy waist 
Are soft usurpers of my place and part ; 

If that fair girdle only there must shine, 

Give me the girdle's life the girdle mine ! 

Thy brow like smooth Bandhuka-leaves ; thy cheek 
Which the dark-tinted Madhuk's velvet shows ; 

Thy long-lashed Lotus eyes, lustrous and meek ; 
Thy nose a Tila-bud ; thy teeth like rows 

Of Kunda-petals ! he who pierceth hearts 

Points with thy lovelinesses all five darts. 

But Kadiant, Perfect, Sweet, Supreme, forgive ! 

My heart is wise my tongue is foolish still : 
I know where I am come I know I live 

I know that thou art Eadha that this will 
Last and be heaven : that I have leave to rise 
Up from thy feet, and look into thine eyes ! 

And, nearer coming, I ask for grace 
Now that the blest eyes turn to mine ; 



THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 87 

Faithful I stand in this sacred place 

Since first I saw them shine : 
Dearest glory that stills my voice, 

Beauty unseen, unknown, unthought ! 
Splendour of love, in whose sweet light 

Darkness is past and nought ; 
Ah, beyond words that sound on earth, 

Golden bloom of the garden of heaven ! 
Radha, enchantress ! Radha, the queen ! 

Be this trespass forgiven 
In that I dare, with courage too much 

And a heart afraid, so bold it is grown 
To hold thy hand with a bridegroom's touch, 
And take thee for mine, mine own.* 
So they met and so they ended 
Pain and parting, being blended 
Life with life made one for ever 
In high love ; and Jayadeva 
Hasteneth on to close the story 
Of their bridal grace and glory. 

(Here ends that Sarga of the Cfita Govinda entitled 
MANINIVARNANE CHATURACHATURBHUJO.) 

* Much here also is necessarily paraphrased. 



SARGA THE ELEVENTH. 



E A D H I K A M I L A N E 
SANANDADAMODAEO. 

THE UNION OF RADHA AKD KRISHNA. 

THUS followed soft and lasting peace, and griefs 

Died while she listened to his tender tongue, 

Her eyes of antelope alight with love ; 

And while he led the way to the bride-bower 

The maidens of her train adorned her fair 

With golden marriage-cloths, and sang this song : 

( What follows is to the Music VASANTA and the Mode 

YATI.) 

Follow, happy Radha ! follow, 
In the quiet falling twilight 



THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 89 

The steps of him who followed thee 

So steadfastly and far ; 
Let us bring thee where the banjulas 

Have spread a roof of crimson, 
Lit up by many a marriage-lamp 

Of planet, sun, and star : 
For the hours of doubt are over, 

And thy glad and faithful lover 
Hath found the road by tears and prayers 

To thy divinest side ; 
And thou wilt not now deny him 

One delight of all thy beauty, 
But yield up open-hearted 

His pearl, his prize, his bride. 

Oh, follow ! while we fill the air 

With songs and softest music ; 
Lauding thy wedded loveliness, 

Dear Mistress past compare ! 
For there is not any splendour 

Of Apsarases immortal 
No glory of their beauty rich 

But Radha has a share ; 



90 THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 

Oh, follow ! while we sing the song 

That fills the worlds with longing, 
The music of the Lord of love 

Who melts all hearts with bliss ; 
For now is born the gladness 

That springs from mortal sadness, 
And all soft thoughts and things and hopes 

Were presages of this. 

Then, follow, happiest Lady ! 

Follow him thou lovest wholly ; 
The hour is come to follow now 

The soul thy spells have led ; 
His are thy breasts like jasper-cups, 

And his thine eyes like planets ; 
Thy fragrant hair, thy stately neck, 

Thy queenly sumptuous head ; 
Thy soft small feet, thy perfect lips, 

Thy teeth like jasmine petals, 
Thy gleaming rounded shoulders, 

And long caressing arms, 
Being thine to give, are his ; and his 

The twin strings of thy girdle, 



THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 91 

And his the priceless treasure 
Of thine utter-sweetest charms. 

So follow ! while the flowers break forth 

In white and amber clusters, 
At the breath of thy pure presence, 

And the radiance on thy brow ; 
Oh, follow where the Asokas wave 

Their sprays of gold and purple, 
As if to beckon thee the way 

That Krishna passed but now ; 
He is gone a little forward ! 

Though thy steps are faint for pleasure, 
Let him hear the tattling ripple 

Of the bangles round thy feet ; 
Moving slowly o'er the blossoms 

On the path which he has shown thee, 
That when he turns to listen 

It may make his fond heart beat. 

And loose thy jewelled girdle 

A little, that its rubies 
May tinkle softest music too, 

And whisper thou art near ; 



92 THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 

Though now, if in the forest 

Thou should'st bend one blade of Kusha 
With silken touch of passing foot, 

His heart would know and hear ; 
Would hear the wood-buds saying, 

" It is Eadha's foot that passes ; r 
Would hear the wind sigh love-sick, 

" It is Eadha's fragrance, this ; " 
Would hear thine own heart beating 

Within thy panting bosom, 
And know thee coming, coming, 

His ever, ever his ! 

" Mine ! " hark ! we are near enough for hearing 
" Soon she will come she will smile she will say 

Honey-sweet words of heavenly endearing ; 
soul ! listen ; my Bride is on her way!" 

Hear'st him not, my liadha ? 

Lo, night bendeth o'er thee 
Darker than dark Tamala-leaves 

To list thy inarriage-song ; 
Dark as the touchstone that tries gold, 

And see now on before thee-^ 



THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 93 

Those lines of tender light that creep 

The clouded sky along : 
O night 1 that trieth gold of love, 

This love is proven perfect ! 
O lines that streak the touchstone sky, 

Flash forth true shining gold ! 
O rose-leaf feet, go boldly ! 

O night ! that lovest loverb 
Thy softest robe of silence 

About these bridals fold ! 

See'st thou not, my Kadha? 

Lo, the night, thy bridesmaid, 
Comes ! her eyes thick-painted 

With soorma of the gloom 
The night that binds the planet-worlds 

For jewels on her forehead, 
And for emblem and for garland 

Loves the blue-black lotus-bloom ; 
The night that scents her breath so sweet 

With cool and musky odours, 
That joys to spread her veil of shade 

Over the limbs of love ; 



94 THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 

And when, with loving weary, 
Yet dreaming love, they slumber, 

Sets the far stars for silver lamps 
To light them from above. 

So came she where he stood, awaiting her 

At the bower's entry, like a god to see, 

With marriage-gladness and the grace of heaven. 

The great pearl set upon his glorious head 

Shone like a moon among the leaves, and shone 

Like stars the gems that kept her gold gown close : 

But still a little while she paused abashed 

At her delight, of her deep joy afraid 

And they that tended her sang once more this : 

( What follows is to the Music VARADI and the Mode 
KUPAKA.) 

Enter, thrice-happy ! enter, thrice-desired ! 
And let the gates of Hari shut thee in 
With the soul destined to thee from of old. 

Tremble not ! lay thy lovely shame aside ; 

Lay it aside with thine unfastened zone, 

And love him with the love that knows not fear, 



THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 95 

Because it fears not change ; enter thou in, 
Flower of all sweet and stainless womanhood ! 
For ever to grow bright, for ever new ; 

Enter beneath the flowers, O flower- fair ! 
Beneath these tendrils, Loveliest ! that entwine 
And clasp, and wreathe and cling, with kissing stems ; 

Enter, with tender-blowing airs of heaven, 
Soft as love's breath and gentle as the tones 
Of lover's whispers, when the lips come close : 

Enter the house of Love, O loveliest ! 
Enter the marriage-bower, most beautiful ! 
And take and give the joy that Hari grants. 

Thy heart has entered, let thy feet go too ! 
Lo, Krishna ! lo, the one that thirsts for thee ! 
Give him the drink of amrit from thy lips. 

Then she, no more delaying, entered straight ; 

Her step a little faltered, but her face 

Shone with unutterable quick love ; and while 



96 THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 

The music of her bangles passed the porch 
Shame, which had lingered in her downcast eyes, 
Departed shamed* . . . and like the mighty deep, 
Which sees the moon and rises, all his life 
Uprose to drink her beams. 

(Here ends that Sarga of the Gitct Govinda entitled 
KADHIKAMILANE SANANDADAMODAHO.) 



Ilari keep you ! He whose might, 

On the King of Serpents seated, 
Flashes forth in dazzling light 

From the Great Snake's gems repeated : 
Ilari keep you ! He whose graces, 

Manifold in majesty, 
Multiplied in heavenly places 

Multiply on earth to see 



* This complete anticipation (salajjd lajjtyi} of the line 

" Upon whose brow shame is ashamed to sit" 

occurs at the close of the Sarga, part of which is here perforce 
omitted, along with the whole of the last one. 



THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 97 

Better with a hundred eyes 

Her bright charms who by him lies. 



What skill may be in singing, 

Wlmt worship sound in song, 
WJiat lore be taught in loving, 

What right divined from wrong : 
Such things hath Jayadeva 

In this his Hymn of Love, 
Which lauds Govinda ever, 

Displayed ; may all approve ! 



THE END OF THE INDIAN SONG OF SONGS. 



G 



MISCELLANEOUS ORIENTAL POEMS. 



THE RAJPOOT WIFE. 



SING something, Jymul Eao ! for the goats are gathered 
now, 

And no more water is to bring ; 
The village-gates are set, and the night is gray as yet, 

God hath given wondrous fancies to thee : sing ! 

Then JymuTs supple fingers, with a touch that doubts 
and lingers, 

Sets athrill the saddest wire of all the six ; 
And the girls sit in a tangle, and hush the tinkling bangle, 

While the boys pile the flame with store of sticks. 

And vain of village praise, but full of ancient days, 
He begins with a smile and with a sigh 

Who knows the babul-tree by the bend of the Eavee ? " 
Quoth Gunesh, " I ! " and twenty voices, " I ! " 



102 THE RAJPOOT WIFE. 

" Well listen ! there below, in the shade of bloom and 
bough, 

Is a musjid of carved and coloured stone ; 
And Abdool Shureef Khan I spit, to name that man! 

Lieth there, underneath, all alone. 

" He was Sultan Mahmood's vassal, and wore an Amir's 
tassel 

In his green hadj-turban, at Nungul, 
Yet the head which went so proud, it is not in his shroud; 

There are bones in that grave, but not a skull ! 

" And, deep drove in his breast, there moulders with the 
rest 

A dagger, brighter once than Chundra's ray ; 
A Eajpoot lohar whet it, and a Eajpoot woman set it 

Past the power of any hand to tear away. 

" Twas the Ranee Neila true, the wife of Soorj Dehu, 

Lord of the Eajpoots of Nourpoor ; 
You shall hear the mournful story, with its sorrow and 
its glory, 

And curse Shureef Khan, the soor I " 



THE RAJPOOT WIFE. 103 

All in the wide Five- Waters was none like Soorj Dehu, 
To foeman who so dreadful, to friend what heart so true? 

Like Indus, through the mountains came down the 

Muslim ranks, 
And town-walls fell before them as flooded river-banks ; 

But Soorj Dehu the Rajpoot owned neither town nor 

wall; 
His house the camp, his roof-tree the sky that covers all ; 

His seat of state the saddle ; his robe a shirt of mail ; 
His court a thousand Eajpoots close at his stallion's tail. 

Not less was Soorj a Eajah because no crown he wore 
Save the grim helm of iron with sword-marks dinted 
o'er; 

Because he grasped no sceptre save the sharp tulwar, 

made 
Of steel that fell from heaven, for 'twas Indra forged 

that blade ! 



104 THE RAJPOOT WIFE. 

And many a starless midnight the shout of " Soorj Dehu " 
Broke up with spear and matchlock the Muslim's 
"Illahu." 

And many a day of battle upon the Muslim proud 
Fell Soorj, as Indra's lightning falls from the silent cloud. 

Nor ever shot nor arrow, nor spear nor stinger's stone, 
Could pierce the mail that Neila the Kanee buckled on : 

But traitor's subtle tongue-thrust through fence of steel 

can break ; 
And Soorj was taken sleeping, whom none had ta'en 

awake. 

Then at the noon, in durbar, swore fiercely Shureef Khan 
That Soorj should die in torment, or live a Mussulman. 

But Soorj laughed lightly at him, and answered, " Work 

your will ! 
The last breath of my body shall curse your Prophet still/' 

With words of insult shainef ul, and deeds of cruel kind, 
They vexed that Kajpoot's body, but never moved his 
mind. 



THE RAJPOOT WIFE. 105 

And one is come who sayeth, " Ho ! Eajpoots ! Soorj is 

bound ; 
Your lord is caged and baited by Shureef Khan, the 

hound. 

" The Khan hath caught and chained him, like a beast, 

in iron cage, 
And all the camp of Islam spends on him spite and 

rage; 

" All day the coward Muslims spend on him rage and 
spite ; 

If ye have thought to help him, 'twere good ye go to- 
night." 

Up sprang a hundred horsemen, flashed in each hand a 

sword ; 
In each heart burned the gladness of dying for their 

lord; 

Up rose each Eajpoot rider, and buckled on with speed 
The bridle-chain and breast-cord, and the saddle of his 
steed. 



io6 THE RAJPOOT WIFE. 

But unto none sad Neila gave word to mount and ride ; 
Only she called the brothers of Soorj unto her side, 

And said, " Take order straightway to seek this camp 

with me ; 
If love and craft can conquer, a thousand is as three. 

" If love be weak to save him, Soorj dies and ye 

return, 
For where a Eajpoot dieth, the Kajpoot widows burn." 

Thereat the Eanee Neila unbraided from her hair 
The pearls as great as Kashmir grapes Soorj gave his 
wife to wear, 

And all across her bosoms like lotus-buds to see 
She wrapped the tinselled sari of a dancing Kunchenee; 

And fastened on her ankles the hundred silver bells, 
To whose light laugh of music the Nautch-girl darts and 
dwells. 

And all in dress a Nautch-girl, but all in heart a queen, 
She set her foot to stirrup with a sad and settled mien. 



THE RAJPOOT WIFE. 107 

Only one thing she carried no Kunchenee should bear, 
The knife between her bosoms ; ho, Shureef ! have a 
care ! 

Thereat, with running ditty of mingled pride and pity, 

Jymul Kao makes the six wires sigh ; 
And the girls with tearful eyes note the music's fall 
and rise, 

And the boys let the fire fade and die. 

All day lay Soorj the Eajpoot in Shureef s iron cage, 
All day the coward Muslims spent on him spite and 
rage. 

With bitter cruel torments, and deeds of shameful kind, 
They racked and broke his body, but could not shake 
his mind. 

And only at the Azan, when all their worst was vain, 
They left him, like dogs slinking from a lion in his pain. 

No meat nor drink they gave him through all that 

burning day, 
And done to death, but scornful, at twilight-time he lay. 



io8 THE RAJPOOT WIFE. 

So when the gem of Shiva uprose, the shining moon, 
Soorj spake unto his spirit, " The end is coming soon. 

" I would the end might hasten, could Neila only know 
What is that Nautch-girl singing with voice so known 
and low ? 

" Singing beneath the cage-bars the song of love and fear 
My Neila sang at parting ! what doth that Nautch-girl 
here? 

"Whence comes she by the music of Neila's tender 

strain, 
She, in that shameless tinsel ? Nautch-girl, sing 

again ! " 

" Ah, Soorj ! " so followed answer " here thine own 

Neila stands, 
Faithful in life and death alike, look up, and take my 

hands: 

" Speak low, lest the guard hear us ; to-night, if thou 

must die, 
Shureef shall have no triumph, but bear thee company." 



THE RAJPOOT WIFE. 109 

So sang she like the Koil that dies beside its mate ; 
With eye as black and fearless, and love as hot and great. 

Then the Chief laid his pale lips upon the little palm, 
And sank down with a smile of love, his face all glad 
and calm ; 

And through the cage-bars Neila felt the brave heart 

stop fast, 
11 Soorj ! " she cried " I follow ! have patience to 

the last." 

She turned and went. " Who passes? " challenged the 

Mussulman ; 
"A Nautch-girl, I." "What seek'st thou?" "The 

presence of the Khan ; 

" Ask if the high chief-captain be pleased to hear me 

sing;" 
And Shureef, full of feasting, the Kunchenee bade bring. 

Then, all before the Muslims, aflame with lawless wine, 
Entered the Eanee Neila, in grace and face divine ; 



i io THE RAJPOOT WIFE. 

And all before the Muslims, wagging their goatish chins, 
The Eajpoot Princess set her to the " bee-dance " that 
begins, 

" If my love loved me, he should be a bee, 
I the yellow champak, love the honey of me!' 

All the wreathe! movements danced she of that dance ; 
Not a step she slighted, not a wanton glance ; 

In her unveiled bosom chased th' intruding bee, 
To her waist and lower she ! a Eajpoot, she ! 

Sang the melting music, swayed the languorous limb : 
Shureef s drunken heart beat Shureef s eyes waxed 
dim. 

From his finger Shureef loosed an Ormuz pearl 
" By the Prophet," quoth he, " 'tis a winsome girl ! 

" Take this ring ; and 'prithee, come and have thy pay, 
I would hear at leisure more of such a lay." 

Glared his eyes on her eyes, passing o'er the plain, 
Glared at the tent-purdah never glared again ! 



THE RAJPOOT WIFE. in 

Never opened after unto gaze or glance, 

Eyes that saw a Kajpoot dance a shameful dance ; 

For the kiss she gave him was his first and last 
Kiss of dagger, driven to his heart, and past. 

At her feet he wallowed, choked with wicked blood ; 
In his breast the katar quivered where it stood. 

At the hilt his fingers vainly wildly try, 
Then they stiffen feeble ; die ! thou slayer, die ! 

From his jewelled scabbard drew she Shureef s sword, 
Cut atwain the neck-bone of the Muslim lord. 

Underneath the starlight, sooth, a sight of dread ! 
Like the Goddess Kali, comes she with the head, 

Conies to where her brothers guard their murdered chief; 
All the camp is silent, but the night is brief. 

At his feet she flings it, flings her burden vile ; 

" Soorj ! I keep my promise ! Brothers, build the pile ! " 



H2 THE RAJPOOT WIFE. 

They have built it, set it, all as Rajpoots do, 
From the cage of iron taken Soorj Dehu ; 

In the lap of Neila, seated on the pile, 

Laid his head she radiant, like a queen the while. 

Then the lamp is lighted, and the ghee is poured 
" Soorj, we burn together : my love, my lord ! " 

In the flame and crackle dies her tender tongue, 
Dies the Eanee, truest, all true wives among. 

At the morn a clamour runs from tent to tent, 

Like the wild geese cackling when the night is spent. 

" Shureef Khan lies headless ! gone is Soorj Dehu ! 
And the wandering Nautch-girl, who has seen her, who ? " 

This but know the sentries, at the " breath of dawn " 
Forth there fared two horsemen, by the first was borne 

The urn of clay, the vessel that Eajpoots use to bring 
The ashes of dead kinsmen to Gungas' holy spring. 



KING SALADIN. 



LONG years ago so tells Boccaccio 
In such Italian gentleness of speech 
As finds no echo in this northern air 
To counterpart its music long ago, 
When Saladin was Soldan of the East, 
The kings let cry a general crusade ; 
And to the trysting-plains of Lombardy 
The idle lances of the North and West 
Rode all that spring, as all the spring runs down 
Into a lake, from all its hanging hills, 
The clash and glitter of a hundred streams. 
Whereof the rumour reached to Saladin ; 
And that swart king as royal in his heart 
As any crowned champion of the Cross 
That he might fully, of his knowledge, learn 

The purpose of the lords of Christendom, 

H 



114 KING SAL A DIN. 

And when their war and what their armament, 
Took thought to cross the seas to Lombardy. 
Wherefore, with wise and trustful Amirs twain, 
All habited in garbs that merchants use, 
With trader's band and gipsire on the breasts 
That best loved mail and dagger, Saladin 
Set forth upon his journey perilous. 

In that day, lordly land was Lombardy ! 
A sea of country-plenty, islanded 
With cities rich ; nor richer one than thee, 
Marble Milano I from whose gate at dawn 
With ear that little recked the matin-bell, 
But a keen eye to measure wall and foss 
The Soldan rode ; and all day long he rode 
For Pavia ; passing basilic, and shrine, 
And gaze of vineyard- workers, wotting not 
Yon trader was the Lord of Heathenesse. 
All day he rode ; yet at the wane of day 
No gleam of gate, or ramp, or rising spire, 
Nor Tessin's sparkle underneath the stars 
Promised him Pavia ; but he was 'ware 
Of a gay company upon the way, 
Ladies and lords, with horses, hawks, and hounds ; 



KING S A LA DIN. 115 

Cap-plumes and tresses fluttered by the wind 
Of merry race for home. " Go ! " said the king 
To one that rode upon his better hand, 
"And pray these gentles of their courtesy 
How many leagues to Pavia, and the gates 
What hour they close them ? " Then the Saracen 
Set spur, and being joined to him that seemed 
First of the hunt, he told the message they 
Checking the jangling bits, and chiding down 
The unfinished laugh to listen but by this 
Came up the king, his bonnet in his hand x 
Theirs doffed to him : " Sir Trader," Torel said 
(Messer Torello 'twas, of Istria), 
" They shut the Paviaii gate at even-song, 
And even-song is sung." Then turning half, 
Muttered, " Pardie, the man is worshipful, 
A stranger too !" "Fair lord ! " quoth Saladin, 
" Please you to stead some weary travellers, 
Saying where we may lodge, the town so far 
And night so near." " Of my heart, willingly," 
Made answer Torel, 4< I did think but now 
To send my knave an errand he shall ride 
And bring you into lodgment oh ! no thanks, 



u6 KING SALADIN. 

Our Lady keep you ! " then with whispered hest 
He called their guide and sped them. Being gone, 
Torello told his purpose, and the band, 
With ready zeal and loosened bridle-chains, 
Eode for his hunting-palace, where they set 
A goodly banquet underneath the planes, 
And hung the house with guest-lights, and anon 
Welcomed the wondering strangers, thereto led 
Unwitting, by a world of winding paths ; 
Messer Torello, at the inner gate, 
Waiting to take them in a goodly host, 
Stamped current with God's image for a man 
Chief among men, truthful, and just, and free. 

Then he, " Well met again, fair sirs ! Our knave 
Hath found you shelter better than the worst : 
Please you to leave your selles, and being bathed, 
Grace our poor supper here." Then Saladin, 
Whose sword had yielded ere his courtesy, 
Answered, " Great thanks, Sir Knight, and this much 

blame, 

You spoil us for our trade ! two bonnets doffed, 
And travellers' questions holding you afield, 
For those you give us this." " Sir ! not your meed, 



KING S A LA DIN. 117 

Nor worthy of your breeding ; but in sooth 

That is not out of Pavia." Thereupon 

He led them to fair chambers decked with all 

Makes tired men glad; lights, and the marble bath, 

And flasks that sparkled, liquid amethyst, 

And grapes, not dry as yet from evening dew. 

Thereafter at the supper-board they sat ; 
Nor lacked it, though its guest was reared a king, 
Worthy pro vend in crafts of cookery, 
Pastel, pasticcio all set forth on gold ; 
And gracious talk and pleasant courtesies, 
Spoken in stately Latin, cheated time 
Till there was none but held the stranger-sir, 
For all his chapman's dress of cramasie, 
Goodlier than silks could make him. Presently 
Talk rose upon the Holy Sepulchre : 
" I go myself," said Torel, " with a score 
Of better knights the flower of Pavia 
To try our steel against King Saladin's. 
Sirs ! ye have seen the countries of the Sun, 
Know you the Soldan ? " Answer gave the king, 
" The Soldan we have seen 'twill push him hard 
If, which I nothing doubt, you Pavian lords 



n8 KING SAL A DIN. 

Are valorous as gentle ; we, alas ! 

Are Cyprus merchants making trade to France 

Dull sons of Peace/' " By Mary ! " Torel cried, 

" But for thy word, I ne'er heard speech so fit 

To lead the war, nor saw a hand that sat 

Liker a soldier's in the sabre's place ; 

But sure I hold you sleepless ! " Then himself 

Playing the chamberlain, with torches borne, 

Led them to restful beds, commending them 

To sleep and God, Who hears Allah or God 

When good men do his creatures charities. 

At dawn the cock, and neigh of saddled steeds, 
Broke the king's dreams of battle not their own, 
But goodly jennets from Torello's stalls, 
Caparisoned to bear them ; he their host 
Up, with a gracious radiance like the sun, 
To bid them speed. Beside him in the court 
Stood Dame Adalieta ; comely she, 
And of her port as queenly, and serene 
As if the braided gold about her brows 
Had been a crown. Mutual good-morrow given, 
Thanks said and stayed, the lady prayed her guest 
To taks a token of his sojourn there, 



KING SALADIN. 119 

Marking her good-will, not his worthiness ; 

" A gown of miniver these f urbelows 

Are silk I spun my lord wears ever such 

A housewife's gift ! but those ye love are far ; 

Wear it as given for them." Then Saladin 

" A precious gift, Madonna, past my thanks ; 

And but thou shalt not hear a ' no ' from me 

Past my receiving ; yet I take it ; we 

Were debtors to your noble courtesy 

Out of redemption this but bankrupts us." 

" Nay, sir, God shield you ! " said the knight and dame. 

And Saladin, with phrase of gentilesse 

Returned, or ever that he rode alone, 

Swore a great oath in guttural Arabic, 

An oath by Allah startling up the ears 

Of those three Christian cattle they bestrode 

That never yet was princelier-natured man, 

Nor gentler lady ; and that time should see 

For a king's lodging quittance royal repaid. 



It was the day of the Passaggio : 

Ashore the war-steeds champed the burnished bit ; 



120 KING S A LA DIN. 

Afloat the galleys tugged the mooring-chain : 

The town was out ; the Lombard armourers 

Eed-hot with riveting the helmets up, 

And whetting axes for the heathen heads 

Cooled in the crowd that filled the squares and streets 

To speed God's soldiers. At the none that day 

Messer Torello to the gate came down, 

Leading his lady ; sorrow's hueless rose 

Grew on her cheek, and thrice the destrier 

Struck fire, impatient, from the pavement-squares, 

Or ere she spoke, tears in her lifted eyes, 

" Goest thou, lord of mine ? " " Madonna, yes ! " 

Said Torel, " for my soul's weal and the Lord 

Eide I to-day : my good name and my house 

Keliant I intrust thee, and because 

It may be they shall slay me, and because, 

Being so young, so fair, and so reputed, 

The noblest will entreat thee wait for me, 

Widow or wife, a year, and month, and day ; 

Then if thy kinsmen press thee to a choice, 

And if I be not come, hold me for dead ; 

Nor link thy blooming beauty with the grave 

Against thine heart/' " Good my lord ! " answered she, 



KING SAL A DIN. 121 

" Hardly my heart sustains to let thee go ; 
Thy memory it can keep, and keep it will, 
Though my one lord, Torel of Istria, 

Live, or " " Sweet, comfort thee ! San Pietro 

speed ! 

I shall come home : if not, and worthy knees 
Bend for this hand, whereof none worthy lives, 
Least he \vho lays his last kiss thus upon it, 

Look thee, I free it " " Nay ! " she said, " but I, 

A petulant slave that hugs her golden chain, 

Give that gift Lack, and with it this poor ring : 

Set it upon thy sword-hand, and in fight 

Be merciful and win, thinking of me/' 

Then she, with pretty action, drawing on 

Her ruby, buckled over it his glove 

The great steel glove and through the helmet bars 

Took her last kiss ; then let the chafing steed 

Have its hot will and go. 

But Saladin, 

Safe back among his lords at Lebanon, 
Well wotting of their quest, awaited it, 
And held the Crescent up against the Cross. 
In many a doughty fight Ferrara blades 



122 KING S A LA DIN. 

Clashed with keen Damasc, many a weary month 
Wasted afield ; but yet the Christians 
Won nothing nearer to Christ's sepulchre ; 
Nay, but gave ground. At last, in Acre pent, 
On their loose files, enfeebled by the war, 
Came stronger smiter than the Saracen 
The deadly Pest : day after day they died, 
Pikeman and knight-at-arms ; day after day 
A thinner line upon the leaguered wall 
Held off the heathen : held them off a space ; 
Then, over-weakened, yielded, and gave up 
The city and the stricken garrison. 

So to sad chains and hateful servitude 
Fell all those purple lords Christendom's stars, 
Once high in hope as soaring Lucifer, 
Now low as sinking Hesper : with them fell 
Messer Torello never one so poor 
Of all the hundreds that his bounty fed 
As he in prison ill-entreated, bound, 
Starved of sweet light, and set to shameful tasks ; 
And that great load at heart to know the days 
Fast flying, and to live accounted dead. 
One joy his gaolers left him, his good hawk ; 



KING S ALA DIN. 123 

The brave, gay bird that crossed the seas with him : 
And often, in the mindful hour of eve, 
With tameless eye and spirit masterful, 
In a feigned anger checking at his hand, 
The good gray falcon made his master cheer. 

One day it chanced Saladin rode afield 

With shawled and turbaned Amirs, and his hawks 

Lebanon-bred, and mewed as princes lodge 

Flew foul, forgot their feather, hung at wrist, 

And slighted call. The Soldan, quick in wrath, 

Bade slay the cravens, scourge the falconer, 

And seek some wight who knew the heart of hawks, 

To keep it hot and true. Then spake a Sheikh 

" There is a Frank in prison by the sea, 

Far-seen herein." " Give word that he be brought," 

Quoth Saladin, " and bid him set a cast : 

If he hath skill, it shall go well for him." 

Thus by the winding path of circumstance 
One palace held, as prisoner and prince, 
Torello and his guest : unwitting each, 
Nay and unwitting, though they met and spake 



124 KING S A LA DIN. 

Of that goshawk and this signers in serge, 

And chapmen crowned, who knows ? till on a time 

Some trick of face, the manner of some smile, 

Some gleam of sunset from the glad day gone, 

Caught the king's eye, and held it. " Nazarene ! 

What native art thou ? " asked he. " Lombard I, 

A man of Pavia." " And thy name ? " " Torel, 

Messer Torello called in happier times, 

Now best uncalled." " Come hither, Christian ! " 

The Soldan said, and led the way, by court 

And hall and fountain, to an inner room 

liich with king's robes : therefrom he reached a gown, 

And " Know'st thou this ? " he asked. " High lord ! I 

might 

Elsewhere/' quoth Torel, " here 'twere mad to say 
Yon gown my wife unto a trader gave 
Who shared our board." "Nay, but that gown is this, 
And she the giver, and the trader I," 
Quoth Saladin; " I ! twice a king to-day, 
Owing a royal debt and paying it." 
Then Torel, sore amazed, " Great lord, I blush, 
Remembering how the Master of the East 
Lodged sorrily." " It's Master's Master thou ! " 



KING S A LA DIN. 125 

Gave answer Saladin, "come in and see 

What wares the Cyprus traders keep at home ; 

Come forth and take thy place, Saladin's friend." 

Therewith into the circle of his lords, 

With gracious mien the Soldan led his slave ; 

And while the dark eyes glittered, seated him 

First of the full divan. " Orient lords," 

So spake he, " let the one who loves his king 

Honour this Frank, whose house sheltered your king ; 

He is my brother : " then the night-black beards 

Swept the stone floor in ready reverence, 

Agas and Amirs welcoming Torel : 

And a great feast was set, the Soldan's friend 

Eoyally garbed, upon the Soldan's hand, 

Shining the bright star of the banqueters. 



All which, and the abounding grace and love 

Shown him by Saladin, a little held 

The heart of Torel from its Lombard home 

With Dame Adalieta : but it chanced 

He sat beside the king in audience, 

And there came one who said, " Oh, Lord of lords, 



126 KING SALADIN. 

That galley of the Genovese which sailed 
With Prankish prisoners is gone down at sea." 
"Gone down!" cried Torel. "Ay! what recks it, 

friend, 

To fall thy visage for ? " quoth Saladin ; 
" One galley less to ship-stuffed Genoa ! " 
" Good my liege ! " Torel said, " it bore a scroll 
Inscribed to Pavia, saying that I lived ; 
For in a year, a month, and day, not come, 
I bade them hold me dead ; and dead I am, 
Albeit living, if my lady wed, 
Perchance constrained." " Certes," spake Saladiu, 
" A noble darne the like not won, once lost 
How many days remain ? " " Ten days, my prince, 
And twelvescore leagues between my heart and me : 
Alas ! how to be passed ? " Then Saladin 
" Lo ! I am loath to lose thee wilt thou swear 
To come again if all go well with thee, 
Or come ill speeding ? " " Yea, I swear, my king, 
Out of true love," quoth Torel, " heartfully." 
Then Saladin, " Take here my signet-seal ; 
My admiral will loose his swiftest sail 
Upon its sight ; and cleave the seas, and go 



KING S A LA DIN. 127 

And clip thy dame, and say the Trader sends 
A gift, remindful of her courtesies." 

Passed were the year, and month, and day ; and passed 
Out of all hearts but one Sir Torel's name, 
Long given for dead by ransomed Pavians : 
For Pavia, thoughtless of her Eastern graves, 
A lovely widow, much too gay for grief, 
Made peals from half a hundred campaniles 
To ring a wedding in. The seven bells 
Of Santo Pietro, from the nones to noon, 
Boomed with bronze throats the happy tidings out ; 
Till the great tenor, overswelled with sound, 
Cracked itself dumb. Thereat the sacristan, 
Leading his swink&d ringers down the stairs, 
Came blinking into sunlight all his keys 
Jingling their little peal about his belt 
Whom, as he tarried, locking up the porch, 
A foreign signor, browned with southern suns, 
Turbaned and slippered, as the Muslims use, 
Plucked by the cope. " Friend," quoth he 'twas a 

tongue 

Italian true, but in a Muslim mouth 
" Why are your belfries busy is it peace 



128 KING S A LA DIN. 

Or victory, that so ye din the ears 

Of Pavian lieges ? " " Truly, no liege thou ! " 

Grunted the sacristan, " who knowest not 

That Dame Adalieta weds to-night 

Her fore-betrothed, Sir Torel's widow she, 

That died i' the chain ? " " To-night ! " the stranger said. 

" Ay, sir, to-night ! why not to-night ? to-night ! 

And you shall see a goodly Christian feast 

If so you pass their gates at even-song, 

For all are asked." 

!STo more the questioner, 
But folded o'er his face the Eastern hood, 
Lest idle eyes should mark how idle words 
Had struck him home. " So quite forgot ! so soon ! 
And this the square wherein I gave the joust, 
And that the loggia, where I fed the poor ; 
And yon my palace, where oh, fair ! oh, false ! 
They robe her for a bridal. Can it be ? 
Clean out of heart, with twice six flying moons, 
The heart that beat on mine as it would break, 
That faltered forty oaths. Forced ! forced ! not false 
Well ! I will sit, wife, at thy wedding-feast, 
And let mine eyes give my fond faith the lie." 



KING S A LA DIN. 129 

So in the stream of gallant guests that flowed 
Feastward at eve, went Torel ; passed with them 
The outer gates, crossed the great courts with them, 
A stranger in the walls that called him lord. 
Cressets and coloured lamps made the way bright, 
And rose-leaves strewed to where within the doors 
The master of the feast, the bridegroom, stood, 
A-glitter from his forehead to his foot, 
Speaking fair welcomes. He, a courtly lord, 
Marking the Eastern guest, bespoke him sweet, 
Prayed place for him, and bade them set his seat 
Upon the dais. Then the feast began, 
And wine went free as wit, and music died 
Outdone by merrier laughter : only one 
Nor ate nor drank, nor spoke nor smiled ; but gazed 
On the pale bride, pale as her crown of pearls, 
Who sate so cold and still, and sad of cheer, 
At the bride-feast. 

But of a truth, Torel 

Eead the thoughts right that held her eyelids down, 
And knew her loyal to her memories. 
Then to a little page who bore the wine, 
He spake, " Go tell thy lady thus from me : 



1 30 A7JVG S ALA DIN. 

In mine own land, if any stranger sit 

A wedding-guest, the bride, out of her grace, 

In token that she knows her guest's good- will, 

In token she repays it, brims a cup, 

Wherefrom he drinking she in turn doth drink ; 

So is our use." The little page made speed 

And told the message. Then that lady pale 

Ever a gentle and a courteous heart 

Lifted her troubled eyes and smiled consent 

On the swart stranger. By her side, untouched, 

Stood the brimmed gold; "Bear this," she said, <f and pray 

He hold a Christian lady apt to learn 

A kindly lesson." But Sir Torel loosed 

From off his finger never loosed before 

The ring she gave him on the parting day ; 

And ere he drank, behind his veil of beard 

Dropped in the cup the ruby, quaffed, and sent. 

Then she, with sad smile, set her lips to drink, 

And something in the Cyprus touching them, 

Glanced gazed the ring ! her ring ! Jove ! how 

she eyes 

The wistful eyes of Torel ! how, heartsure, 
Under all guise knowing her lord returned, 



KING S A LA DIN. 131 

She springs to meet him coming ! telling all 
In one great cry of joy. 

me ! the rout, 

The storm of questions ! stilled, when Torel spake 
His name, and, known of all, claimed the Bride Wife, 
Maugre the wasted feast, and woful groom. 
All hearts but his were light to see Torel ; 
But Adalieta's lightest, as she plucked 
The bridal-veil away. Something therein 
A lady's dagger small, and bright, and fine 
Clashed out upon the marble. " Wherefore that ? " 
Asked Torel ; answered she, " I knew you true ; 
And I could live, so long as I might wait ; 
But they they pressed me hard ! my days of grace 
Ended to-night and I had ended too, 
Faithful to death, if so thou hadst not come/' 



( 132 ) 



THE CALIPH'S DRAUGHT. 



UPON a day in Kamadan 

When sunset brought an end of fast, 
And in his station every man 

Prepared to share the glad repast 
Sate Mohtasim in royal state, 

The pillaw smoked upon the gold ; 
The fairest slave of those that wait 

Mohtasim's jewelled cup did hold. 

Of crystal carven was the cup, 

With turquoise set along the brim, 
A lid of amber closed it up ; 

'Twas a great king that gave it him. 
The slave poured sherbet to the brink, 

Stirred in wild honey and pomegranate, 
With snow and rose-leaves cooled the drink, 

And bore it where the Caliph sate. 



THE CALIPH'S DRAUGHT. 133 

The Caliph's mouth was dry as bone, 

He swept his beard aside to quaff: 
The news-reader beneath the throne, 

Went droning on with gliain and leaf. 
The Caliph drew a mighty breath, 

Just then the reader read a word 
And Mohtasim, as grim as death, 

Set down the cup and snatched his sword. 

" A nn* amratan shureefatee ! " 

" Speak clear ! " cries angry Mohtasim ; 
" Fe lasr ind y ilj min ulji" 

Trembling the newsman read to him 
How in Ammoria, far from home, 

An Arab girl of noble race 
Was captive to a lord of Roum ; 

And how he smote her on the face, 

And how she cried, for life afraid, 
" Ya, Mohtasim ! help, my king ! " 

And how the Kafir mocked the maid, 
And laughed, and spake a bitter thing, 



*34 THE CALIPH'S DRAUGHT. 

" Call louder, fool ! Mohtasim's ears 
Are long as Barak's if he heed 

Your prophet's ass ; and when he hears, 
Hell come upon a spotted steed ! " 

The Caliph's face was stern and red, 

He snapped the lid upon the cup ; 
" Keep this same sherbet, slave/' he said, 

" Till such time as I drink it up. 
Wallah ! the stream my drink shall be, 

My hollowed palm my only bowl, 
Till I have set that lady free, 

And seen that Eoumi dog's head roll/' 



At dawn the drums of war were beat, 

Proclaiming, " Thus saith Mohtasim, 
' Let all my valiant horsemen meet, 

And every soldier bring with him 
A spotted steed.' " So rode they forth, 

A sight of marvel and of fear ; 
Pied horses prancing fiercely north ; 

The crystal cup borne in the rear ! 



THE CALIPH'S DRAUGHT. 135 

When to Ammoria he did win, 

He smote and drove the dogs of Ro' m, 
And rode his spotted stallion in, 

Crying, " Ldblayld ! I am come ! " 
Then downward from her prison-place 

Joyful the Arab lady crept ; 
She held her tair before her face, 

She kissed his feet, she laughed and wept. 

She pointed where that lord was laid : 

They drew him forth, he whined for grace : 
Then with fierce eyes Mohtasim said 

" She whom thou smotest on the face 
Had scorn, because she called her king : 

Lo ! he is come ! and dost thou think 
To live, who didsb this bitter thing 

While Mohtasim at peace did drink ? " 

Flashed the fierce sword rolled the lord's head ; 

The wicked blood smoked in the sand. 
" Now bring my cup ! " the Caliph said. 

Lightly he took it in his hand, 



136 THE CALIPH'S DRAUGHT. 

As down his throat the sweet drink ran 
Mohtasim in his saddle laughed, 

And cried, " Taiba asshrab alan ! 
By God ! delicious is this draught ! " 



( 137 ) 



HINDOO FUNERAL SONG. 



CALL on Kama ! call to Eama ! 
Oh, my brothers, call on Eama ! 

For this Dead 

Whom we bring, 
Call aloud to mighty Eama. 

As we bear him, oh, my brothers, 
Call together, very loudly, 

That the Bhtits 

May be scared ; 
That his spirit pass in comfort 

Turn his feet now, calling " Eama," 
Calling " Eama/' who shall take him 

When the flames 

Make an end : 
Earn ! Earn ! oh, call to Eama. 



138 



SONG OF THE SERPENT- 
CHARMERS. 



COME forth, oh, Snake ! come forth, oh, glittering Snake ! 

Oh shining, lovely, deadly Nag ! appear, 

Dance to the music that we make, 

This serpent-song, so sweet and clear, 
Blown on the beaded gourd, so clear, 
So soft and clear. 

Oh, dread Lord Snake ! come forth and spread thy hood, 
And drink the milk and suck the eggs ; and show 
Thy tongue ; and own the tune is good : 

Hear, Maharaj ! how hard we blow ! 

Ah, Maharaj 1 for thee we blow ; 

See how we blow ! 



SONG OF THE SERPENT-CHARMERS. 139 

Great Uncle Snake ! creep forth and dance to-day ! 

This music is the music snakes love best ; 

Taste the warm white new milk, and play 
Standing erect, with fangs at rest, 
Dancing on end, sharp fangs at rest, 
Fierce fangs at rest. 

Ah, wise Lord Nag ! thou comest ! Fear thou not ! 
We make salaam to thee, the Serpent-King, 
Draw forth thy folds, knot after knot ; 

Dance, Master ! while we softly sing ; 

Dance, Serpent ! while we play and sing, 
We play and sing. 

Dance, dreadful King ! whose kisses strike men dead ; 
Dance this side, mighty Snake ! the milk is here ! 

\Tliey seize the Cobra ty the neck.] 
Ah, stiabash ! pin his angry head ! 

Thou fool ! this nautch shall cost thee dear ; 
Wrench forth his fangs ! this piping clear, 
It costs thee dear ! 



SONG OF THE FLOUR-MILL. 



TURN the merry mill-stone, Gunga ! 

Pour the golden grain in ; 
Those that twist the Churrak fastest 

The cakes soonest win : 

f 
Good stones, turn ! 

The fire begins to burn ; 
Gunga, stay not ! 
The hearth is nearly hot. 
Grind the hard gold to silver, 

Sing quick to the stone ; 
Feed its mouth with dal and bajri, 
It will feed us anon. 

Sing, Gunga I to the mill-stone, 
It helps the wheel hum ; 



SONG OF THE FLOUR-MILL. 141 

Blithesome hearts and willing elbows 
Make the fine meal come : 
Handsful three 
For you and for me ; 
Now it falls white, 
Good stones, bite ! 
Drive it round and round, my Gunga ! 

Sing soft to the stone ; 
Better corn and churrak-working 
Than idleness and none. 



TAZA BA TAZA. 



AKBAE sate high in the ivory hall, 
His chief musician he bade them call ; 
Sing, said the king, that song of glee, 

Taza la taza, now la now. 
Sing me that music sweet and free, 

Taza ba taza, now ba now ; 
Here by the fountain sing it thou, 

Taza la taza, now la now. 

Bending full low, his minstrel took 
The Vina down from its painted nook, 
Swept the strings of silver so 

Taza la taza, now la now ; 
Made the gladsome Vina go 

Taza la taza, now ba now ; 



TAZA BA TAZA. 143 

Sang with light strains and brightsome brow 
Taza ba taza, now ba now. 

" What is the lay for love most fit ? 
What is the melody echoes it ? 
Ever in tune and ever meet, 

Taza ba taza, now ba now ; 
Ever delightful and ever sweet 

Taza ba taza, now ba now ; 
Soft as the niurinur of love's first vow, 

Taza ba taza, now ba now." 

11 What is the bliss that is best on earth ? 
Lovers' light whispers and tender mirth ; 
Bright gleams the sun on the Green Sea's isle, 
But a brighter light has a woman's smile : 
Ever, like sunrise, fresh of hue, 

Taza ba taza, now ba now ; 
Ever, like sunset, splendid and new, 

Taza ba taza, now ba now!' 

" Thereunto groweth the graceful vine 
To cool the lips of lovers with wine, 



144 TAZA BA TAZA. 

Haste thee and bring the amethyst cup, 
That happy lovers may drink it up ; 
And so renew their gentle play, 

Taza ba taza, now ba now ; 
Ever delicious and new alway, 

Taza ba taza, now bet now." 



' Thereunto sigheth the evening gale 
To freshen the cheeks which love made pale ; 
This is why bloometh the scented flower, 
To gladden with grace love's secret bower : 
Love is the zephyr that always blows, 

Taza ba taza, now ba 'now ; 
Love is the rose-bloom that ever glows, 

Taza ba taza, novj ba 71010" 



Akbar, the mighty one, smiled to hear 
The musical strain so soft and clear ; 
Danced the diamonds over his brow 

To taza ba taza, y now ba now : 
His lovely ladies rocked in a row 

To taza ba taza, now ba now ; 



TAZA BA TAZA. 145 

Livelier sparkled the fountain's flow, 

Boose sittan la kaum uzo ; 
Swifter and sweeter the strings did go, 

Mutrib i Utooshnud wa brjo ; 
Xever such sininn^ was heard. I trow : 

O O " 

Taza ba tazcr, now ba now. 



THE MUSSULMAN PARADISE. 



(From the Arabic of the Fifty-sijcth Surat of the Koran, 
entitled " The Inevitable") 

WHEN the Day of Wrath and Mercy cometli, none shall 

doubt it come ; 
Unto hell some it shall lower, and exalt to heaven 

some. 

When the Earth with great shocks shaketh, and the 

mountains crumble flat, 
Quick and Dead shall be divided fourfold : on this 

side and that. 

The " Companions of the Right Hand " (ah ! how joyful 

they will be !) 
The " Companions of the Left Hand " (oh ! what misery 

to see !) 



THE MUSSULMAN PARADISE. 147 

Such, moreover, as of old times loved the truth, and 
' taught it well, 

First in faith, they shall be foremost in reward. The 
rest to hell. 

But those souls attaining Allah, oh ! the Gardens of 

good cheer 
Kept to bless them ! Yea, besides the " faithful," many 

shall be there. 

Lightly lying on soft couches, beautiful with 'broidered 

gold, 
Friends with friends, they shall be served by youths 

immortal, who shall hold 

" Akwdb, aba reck 9 ' cups and goblets, brimming with 

celestial wine, 
Wine that hurts not head or stomach : this and fruits 

of heav'n which shine 

Bright, desirable ; and rich flesh of what birds they 

relish best. 
Yea! and feasted there shall soothe them damsels 

fairest, stateliest ; 



148 THE MUSSULMAN PARADISE. 

Damsels, having eyes of wonder, large black eyes, like 

hidden pearls, 
" Lulu-l-incikn'&n " : Allah grants them for sweet love 

those matchless girls. 

Never in that Garden hear they speech of folly, sin, or 

dread, 
Only PEACE; " SALAMUN" only; that one word for 

ever said. 

PEACE ! PEACE ! PEACE ! and the " Companions of the 

Eight Hand " (ah ! those bowers !) 
They shall lodge 'mid thornless lote-groves ; under 

mawz-trees thick with flowers ; 

Shaded, fed, by flowing waters ; near to fruits that 

never cloy, 
Hanging ever ripe for plucking ; and at hand the 

tender joy 

Of those Maids of Heaven the Hftris. Lo ! to these 

we gave a birth " 
Specially creating. Lo ! they are not as the wives of 

earth. 



THE MUSSULMAN PARADISE. 149 

Ever virginal and stainless, howsooften they embrace, 
Always young, and loved, and loving, these are. 
Neither is there grace 

Like the grace and bliss the Black-eyed keep for you 

in Paradise ; 
Oh, " Companions of the Eight Hand " ! oh ! ye others 

who were wise ! 



DEDICATION OF A POEM FROM 
THE SANSKRIT. 



SWEET, on the daisies of your English grave 
I lay this little wreath of Indian flowers, 

Fragrant for me because the scent they have 
Breathes of the memory of our wedded hours ; 

For others scentless ; and for you, in heaven, 
Too pale and faded, dear dead wife ! to wear, 

Save that they mean what makes all fault forgiven- 
That he who brings them lays his heart, too, there. 

April 9, 1865. 



THE RAJAH'S RIDE. 



A PUNJAB SONG. 

Now is the Devil-horse come to Sindh ! 

Wall I wah ! gooroo ! that is true ! 
His belly is stuffed with the fire and the wind, 

But a fleeter steed had Eunjeet Dehu ! 

It's forty koss from Lahore to the ford, 

Forty and more to far Jurnmoo ; 
Fast may go the Feringhee lord, 

But never so fast as Runjeet Dehu ! 

Eunjeet Dehu was King of the Hill, 

Lord and eagle of every crest ; 
Now the swords and the spears are still, 

God will have it and God knows best ! 



THE RAJAH'S RIDE. 

Rajah Eunjeet sate in the sky, 
Watching the loaded Kafilas in ; 

Affghan, Kashmeree, passing by, 
Paid him pushm to save their skin. 

Once he caracoled into the plain, 
Wah ! the sparkle of steel on steel ! 

And up the pass came singing again 
With a lakh of silver borne at his heel. 

Once he trusted the Mussulman's word, 

Wah ! \vah ! trust a liar to lie ! 
Down from his eyrie they tempted my Bird, 

And clipped his wings that he could not ily. 

Fettered him fast in far Lahore, 

Fast by the gate at the Eunchenee Pill ; 

Sad was the soul of Chunda Kour, 
Glad the merchants of rich Kurnool. 

Ten months Itunjeet lay in Lahore 

Wah ! a hero's heart is brass ! 
Ten months never did Chunda Kour 

Braid her hair at the tiring-glass. 



THE RAJAH'S RIDE. 153 

There came a steed from Toorkistan, 

Wall ! God made him to match the hawk ! 

Fast beside him the four grooms ran, 

To keep abreast of the Toorkman's walk. 

Black as the bear on Iskardoo ; 

Savage at heart as a tiger chained ; 
Fleeter than hawk that ever flew, 

Never a Muslim could ride him reined. 

" Itunjeet Dehu ! come forth from thy hold " 
Wall ! ten months had rusted his chain ! 

" liide this Sheitan's liver cold" 

Kunjeet twisted his hand in the inane. 

Itunjeet sprang to the Toorkman's back, 
Wah ! a king on a kingly throne ! 

Snort, black Sheitan ! till nostrils crack, 
Eajah Ruirjeet sits, a stone. 

Three times round the Maidan he rode, 
Touched its neck at the Kashineree wall, 

Struck the spurs till they spirted blood, 
Leapt the rampart before them all ! 



154 THE RAJAH'S RIDE. 

Breasted the waves of the blue Eavee, 
Forty horsemen mounting behind, 

Forty bridle-chains flung free, 
Wah ! wah ! better chase the wind ! 

Chunda Kour sate sad in Jummoo : 
Hark ! what horse-hoof echoes without ? 

" Eise ! and welcome Eunjeet Dehu 
Wash the Toorkman's nostrils out ! 

" Forty koss he has come, my life ! 

Forty koss back he must carry me ; 
Eajah Eunjeet visits his wife, 

He steals no steed like an Afreedee. 

" They bade me teach them how to ride 

Wah ! wah ! now I have taught them well ! : 
Chunda Kour sank low at his side ! 
Eunjeet rode the hill. 



When he came back to far Lahore 
Long or ever the night began 

Spake he, " Take your horse once more, 
He carries well when he bears a man." 



THE RAJAH'S RIDE. 155 

Then they gave him a khillut and gold, 
All for his honour and grace and truth ; 

Sent him back to his mountain-hold 
Muslim manners have touch of ruth ; 

Sent him back, with dances and drum 

Wall ! my Rajah liunjeet Dehu ! 
To Chunda Kour and his Jummoo home 

Wah ! wah ! futtee ! wah, gooroo ! 



TWO HOOKS FROM THE ILIAD 
OF INDIA. 



( 159 ) 



TWO BOOKS FROM THE ILIAD OF 
INDIA. 

(Now for the first time translated.} 

THEKE exist certain colossal, unparalleled, epic poems 
in the sacred language of India, which were not known 
to Europe, even by name, till Sir William Jones an- 
nounced their existence; and which, since his time, 
have been made public only by fragments by mere 
specimens bearing to those vast treasures of Sanskrit 
literature such small proportion as cabinet samples of 
ore have to the riches of a mine. Yet these twain 
mighty poems contain all the history of ancient 
India, so far as it can be recovered, together with such 
inexhaustible details of its political, social, and reli- 
gious life that the antique Hindu world really stands 
epitomised in them. The Old Testament is not more 
interwoven with the Jewish race, nor the New Testa- 
ment with the civilisation of Christendom, nor the 
Koran with the records and destinies of Islam, than 
are these two Sanskrit poems the Mahabluirata 
and Eamdyana with that unchanging and teeming 
population which Her Majesty, Queen Victoria, rules 



160 TWO BOOKS FROM THE 

as Empress of Hindustan. The stories, songs, and 
ballads, the histories and genealogies, the nursery 
tales and religious discourses, the art, the learning, 
the philosophy, the creeds, the moralities, the modes 
of thought; the very phrases, sayings, turns of ex- 
pression, and daily ideas of the Hindu people, are 
taken from these poems. Their children and their 
wives are named out of them ; so are their cities, 
temples, streets, and cattle. They have constituted 
the library, the newspaper, and the Bible generation 
after generation to all the succeeding and countless 
millions of Indian people; and it replaces patriotism 
with that race and stands in stead of nationality to 
possess these two precious and inexhaustible books, and 
to drink from them as from mighty and overflowing 
rivers. The value ascribed in Hindustan to these yet 
little-known epics has transcended all literary standards 
established in the West. They are personified, wor- 
shipped, and cited from as something divine. To read 
or even listen to them is thought by the devout Hindu 
sufficiently meritorious to bring prosperity to his house- 
hold here and happiness in the next world ; they are 
held also to give wealth to the poor, health to the sick, 
wisdom to the ignorant ; and the recitation of certaii). 
parvas and slilokas in them can fill the household of 
the barren, it is believed, with children. A concluding 
passage of the great poem says : 

" The reading of this Mahabh&rata destroys all sin and pro- 
duces virtue ; so much so, that the pronunciation of a single 



ILIAD OF INDIA. 161 

shloka is sufficient to wipe away much guilt. This Mah&- 
bha>ata contains the history of the gods, of the Kishis in 
heaven and those on earth, of the Gandharvas and the Rk- 
shasas. It also contains the life and actions of the one God, 
holy, immutable, and true, who is Krishna, who is the creator 
and the ruler of this universe ; who is seeking the welfare of 
his creation by means of his incomparable and indestructible 
j)ower ; whose actions are celebrated by all sages ; who has 
bound human beings in a chain, of which one end is life and 
the other death ; on whom the Rishis meditate, and a know- 
ledge of whom imparts unalloyed happiness to their hearts, and 
for whose gratification and favour all the daily devotions are 
performed by all worshippers. If a man reads the Maha- 
bharata arid has faith in its doctrines, he is free from all sin, 
and ascends to heaven after his death." 

In order to explain the portion of this Indian epic, 
here for the first time published in English verse, I 
reprint a brief summary of its plot : 

The "great war of Bharat" has its first scenes in 
Hastinapur. an ancient and vanished city, formerly 
situated about sixty miles north-east of the modern 
Delhi. The Ganges has washed away even the ruins 
of this the metropolis of King Bharat's dominions. 
The poem opens with a " sacrifice of snakes ; " but this 
is a prelude, connected merely by a curious legend with 
the real beginning. That beginning is reached when 
the five sons of " King Pandu the Pale " and the five 
sons of " King Dhritarashtra the Blind," both of them 
descendants of Bharat, are being brought up together 
in the palace. The first were called Pandavas, the last 
Kauravas, and their lifelong feud is the main subject 
of the epic. Yudhishthira, Bhima, Arjuna, Nakula, 
and Sahadeva are the Pandava princes. Duryodhana 



1 62 TWO BOOKS FROM THE 

is chief of the Kauravas. They are instructed by one 
master, Drona, a Brahman, in the arts of war and 
peace, and learn to manage and brand cattle, hunt wild 
animals, and tame horses. There is in the early portion 
a striking picture of an Aryan tournament, wherein the 
young cousins display their skill, " highly arrayed, amid 
vast crowds," and Arjuna especially distinguishes him- 
self. Clad in golden mail, he shows amazing feats with 
sword and bow. He shoots twenty-one arrows into the 
hollow of a buffalo-horn while his chariot whirls along ; 
he throws the " chakra," or sharp quoit, without once 
missing his victim ; and, after winning the prizes, 
kneels respectfully at the feet of his instructor to 
receive his crown. The cousins, after this, march out 
to fight with a neighbouring king, and the Pandavas, 
who are always the favoured family in the poem, win 
most of the credit, so that Yudhishthira is elected from 
among them Yuvaraj, or heir apparent. This incenses 
Duryodhana, who, by appealing to his father, Dhritar- 
ashtra, procures a division of the kingdom, the Pandavas 
being sent to Vacanavat, now Allahabad. All this part 
of the story refers obviously to the advances gradually 
made by the Aryan conquerors of India into the jungles 
peopled by aborigines. Forced to quit their new city, 
the Pandavas hear of the marvellous beauty of Draupadf, 
whose Swayamvara, or " choice of a suitor,'' is about to 
be celebrated at Karnpilya. This again furnishes a 
strange and glittering picture of the old times; vast 
masses of holiday people, with rajahs, elephants, troops, 



ILIAD OF INDIA. 163 

jugglers, dancing-women, and showmen, are gathered 
in a gay encampment round the pavilion of the King 
Draupada, whose lovely daughter is to take for her 
husband (on the well-understood condition that she 
approves of him) the fortunate archer who can strike 
the eye of a golden fish, whirling round upon the top 
of a tall pole, with an arrow shot from an enormously 
strong bow. The princess, adorned with radiant gems, 
holds a garland of flowers in her hand for the victorious 
suitor; but none of the rajahs can bend the bow. 
Arjuna, disguised as a Brahman, performs the feat with 
ease, and his youth and grace win the heart of Draupadi 
more completely than his skill. The princess hence- 
forth follows the fortunes of the brothers, and, by a 
strange ancient custom, lives with them in common. 
The Pandavas, now allied to the King Draupada and 
become strong, are so much dreaded by the Kauravas 
that they are invited back again, for safety's sake, to 
Hastinapura, and settle near it in the city of Indra- 
prastha, now Delhi. The reign of Yudhishthira and 
his brothers is very prosperous there ; " every subject 
was pious ; there were no liars, thieves, or cheats ; no 
droughts, floods, or locusts ; no conflagrations nor in- 
vaders, nor parrots to eat up the grain." 

The Pandava king, having subdued all enemies, now 
performs the Rajasuya, or ceremony of supremacy, 
and here again occur wonderfully interesting pictures. 
Duryodhana comes thither, and his jealousy is inflamed 
by the magnificence of the rite. Among other curious 



1 64 TWO BOOKS FROM THE 

incidents is one which seems to show that glass was 
already known. A pavilion is paved with " black cry- 
stal/' which the Kaurava prince mistakes for water, 
and " draws up his garments lest he should be wetted." 
But now approaches a turning-point in the epic. 
Furious at the wealth and fortune of his cousins, 
Duryodhana invites them to Hastinapura to join in a 
great gambling festival. The passion for play was as 
strong apparently with these antique Hindus as that 
for fighting or for love : " No true Kshatriya must ever 
decline a challenge to combat or to dice." The brothers 
go to the entertainment, which is to ruin their pro- 
sperity ; for Sakuni, the most skilful and lucky gambler, 
lias loaded the " coupun," so as to win every throw. 
Mr. Wheeler's excellent summary again says : 

" Then Yudhishtliira and Sakuni sat down to play, and what- 
ever Yudhishthira laid as stakes Duryodhana laid something of 
equal value ; but Yudhishtliira lost every game. He first lost 
a very beautiful pearl ; next a thousand bags each containing 
a thousand pieces of gold ; next a great piece of gold so pure 
that it was as 'soft as wax ; next a chariot set with jewels and 
hung all round with golden bells ; next a thousand war-ele- 
phants with golden howdahs set with diamonds ; next a lakh 
of slaves all dressed in rich garments ; next a lakh of beautiful 
slave-girls, adorned from head to foot with golden ornaments ; 
next all the remainder of his goods ; next all his cattle ; and 
then the whole of his Raj, excepting only the lands which had 
been granted to the Brabmans." 

After this tremendous run of ill-luck, he madly 
stakes Draupadi the Beautiful, and loses her. The 
princess is dragged away by the hair, and Duryodhana 
mockingly bids her come and sit upon his knee, for 



ILIAD OF INDIA. 165 

which Bhima the Pandava swears that he will some 
day break his thigh-bone, a vow which is duly kept. 
But the blind old king rebukes this fierce elation of the 
winner, restores Draupadi, and declares that they must 
throw another main to decide who shall leave Hastin- 
apura. The cheating Sakuni cogs the dice again, and 
the Pandavas must now go away into the forest, and 
let no man know them by name for thirteen years. 
They depart, Draupadi unbinding her long black hair, 
and vowing never to fasten it back again till the hands 
of Bhima, the strong man among the Pandavas, are red 
with the punishment of the Kauravas. " Then he shall 
tie my tresses up again, when his fingers are dripping 
with Duhsasana's blood." 

There follow long episodes of their adventures in 
the jungle till the time when the Pandavas emerge, 
and, still disguised, take up their residence in King 
Virata's city. Here the vicissitudes of Draupadi as a 
handmaid of the queen, of Bhima as the palace wrestler, 
of Arjuna disguised as a eunuch, and of Nakula, Saha- 
deva, and Yudhishthira, acting as herdsmen and atten- 
dants, are most absorbing and dramatic. The virtue of 
Draupadi, assailed by a prince of the State, is terribly 
defended by the giant Bhima ; and when the Kauravas, 
suspecting the presence in the place of their cousins, 
attack Virata, Arjuna drives the chariot of the heir 
apparent, and victoriously repulses them with his 
awful bow Gandiva. 

After all these evidences of prowess and the help 



1 66 TWO BOOKS FROM THE 

afforded in the battle, the King of Virata discovers the 
princely rank of the Pandavas, and gives his daughter 
in marriage to the son of Arjuna. A great council is 
then held to consider the question of declaring war on 
the Kauravas, at which the speeches are quite Homeric, 
the god Krishna taking part. The decision is to 
prepare for war, but to send an embassy first. Mean- 
time Duryodhana and Arjuna engage in a singular 
contest to obtain the aid of Krishna, whom both of 
them seek out. This celestial hero is asleep when they 
arrive, and the proud Kaurava, as Lord of Indraprastha, 
sits down at his head ; Arjuna, more reverently, takes 
a place at his feet. Krishna, awaking, offers to give 
his vast army to one of them, and himself as counsellor 
to the other ; and Arjuna gladly allows Duryodhana 
to take the army, which turns out much the worse 
bargain. The embassy, meantime, is badly received; 
but it is determined to reply by a counter-message, 
while warlike preparations continue. There is a great 
deal of useless negotiation, against which Draupadf 
protests, like another Constance, saying, " War, war ! 
no peace ! Peace is to me a war ! " Krishna consoles 
her with the words, " Weep not ! the time has nearly 
come when the Kauravas will be slain, both great and 
small, and their wives will mourn as you have been 
mourning." The ferocity of the chief of the Kauravas 
prevails over the wise counsels of the blind old king 
and the warnings of Krishna, so that the fatal conflict 
must now begin upon the plain of Kurukshetra. 



ILIAD OF INDIA. 167 

All is henceforth martial and stormy in the "parvas" 
that ensue. The two enormous hosts march to the 
field, generalissimos are selected, and defiances of the 
most violent and abusive sort exchanged. Yet there 
are traces of a singular civilisation in the rules which 
the leaders draw up to be observed in the war. Thus, 
no stratagems are to be used ; the fighting men are to 
fraternise, if they will, after each combat; none may 
slay the flier, the unarmed, the charioteer, or the beater 
of the drum ; horsemen are not to attack footmen, and 
nobody is to fling a spear till the preliminary challenges 
are finished; nor may any third man interfere when 
two combatants are engaged. These curious regulations 
which would certainly much embarrass Yon Moltke 
are, sooth to say, not very strictly observed, and, no 
doubt, were inserted at a later age in the body of the 
poem by its Brahman editors. Those same interpolaters 
have overloaded the account of the eighteen days of 
terrific battle which follow with many episodes and 
interruptions, some very eloquent and philosophic ; 
indeed, the whole IJ/iayavad-Gita conies in hereabouts 
as a religious interlude. Essays on laws, morals, and 
the sciences are grafted, with lavish indifference to the 
continuous flow of the narrative, upon its most impor- 
tant portions ; but there is enough of solid and tremen- 
dous fighting, notwithstanding, to pale the crimson pages 
of the Greek Iliad itself. The field glitters, indeed, 
with kings and princes in panoply of gold and jewels, 
who engage in mighty and varied combats, till the 



1 68 TWO BOOKS FROM THE 

earth swims in blood, and the heavens themselves are 
obscured with dust and flying weapons. One by one 
the Kaurava chiefs are slain, and Bhima, the giant, 
at last meets in arms Duhsasana, the Kaurava prince 
who had dragged Draupadi by the hair. He strikes 
him down with the terrible mace of iron, after which 
he cuts off his head, and drinks of his blood, saying, 
" Never have I tasted a draught so delicious as this." 
So furious now becomes the war that even the just and 
mild Arjuna commits two breaches of Aryan chivalry, 
killing an enemy while engaged with a third man, 
and shooting Kama dead while lie is extricating his 
chariot-wheel and without a weapon. At last none are 
left of the chief Kauravas except Duryodhana, who 
retires from the field and hides in an island of the lake. 
The Pandavas find him out, and heap such reproaches 
on him that the surly warrior comes forth at length, 
and agrees to fight with Bhima. The duel proves of 
a tremendous nature, and is decided by an act of 
treachery; for Arjuna, standing by, reminds Bhima, 
by a gesture, of his oath to break the thigh of Duryod- 
hana, because he had bidden Draupadi sit on his knee. 
The giant takes the hint, and strikes a foul blow, which 
cripples the Kaurava hero, and he falls helpless to 
earth. After this the Pandava princes are declared 
victorious, and Yudhishthira is proclaimed king. 

The great poem soon softens its martial music into 
a pathetic strain. The dead have to be burned, and 
the living reconciled to their new lords; while after- 



ILIAD OF INDIA. 169 

wards King Yudhishthira is installed in high state 
with " chamaras, golden umbrellas, elephants, and sing- 
ing." He is enthroned facing towards the east, and 
touches rice, flowers, earth, gold, silver, and jewels, 
in token of owning all the products of his realm. 
Being thus firmly seated on his throne, with his cousins 
round him, the Eajah prepares to celebrate the most 
magnificent of ancient Hindu rites, the Aswamedha, 
or Sacrifice of the Horse. It is difficult to raise the 
thoughts of a modern and Western public to the 
solemnity, majesty, and marvel of this antique Oriental 
rite, as viewed by Hindus. The monarch who was 
powerful enough to perform it chose a horse of pure 
white colour, " like the moon," with a saffron tail, and 
a black right ear; or the animal might be all black, 
without a speck of colour. This steed, wearing a gold 
plate on its forehead, with the royal name inscribed, 
was turned loose, and during a whole year the king's 
army was bound to follow its wanderings. Whitherso- 
ever it went, the ruler of the invaded territory must 
either pay homage to the king, and join him with his 
warriors, or accept battle ; but whether conquered or 
peacefully submitting, all these princes must follow 
the horse, and at the end of the year assist at the 
sacrifice of the consecrated animal. Moreover, during 
the whole year the king must restrain all passion, live 
a perfectly purified life, and sleep on the bare ground. 
The white horse could not be loosened until the night 
of the full moon in Chaitra t which answers to the 



170 TWO BOOKS FROM THE 

latter half of March and the first half of April, in 
fact, at Easter-time ; and it may be observed here that 
this is not the only strange coincidence in the sacrifice. 
It was thus an adventure of romantic conquest, mingled 
with deep religion and arrogant ostentation ; and the 
entire description of the Aswamedlia would prove most 
interesting. The horse is found, is adorned with the 
golden plate, and turned loose, wandering into distant 
regions ; where the army of Arjuna for it was he who 
led Yudhishthira's forces goes through twelve amaz- 
ing adventures. They come, for instance, to a land of 
Amazons, all of wonderful beauty, wearing armour of 
pearls and gold, and equally fatal either to love or to 
fight with. These dazzling enemies, however, finally 
submit, as also the Kajah of the rich city of Babhru- 
vahan, which possessed high walls of solid silver, 
and was lighted with precious jewels for lamps. The 
serpent people, in the same way, who live beneath the 
earth in the city of Vasuki, yield, after combat, to 
Arjuna. A thousand million semi-human snakernen 
dwelt there, with wives of consummate loveliness, 
possessing in their realm gems which would restore 
dead people to life, as well as a fountain of perpetual 
youth. Finally, Arjuna's host marches back in great 
glory, and with a vast train of vanquished monarchs, to 
the city of Hastinapura, where all the subject kings have 
audience of Yudhishthira, and the immense prepara- 
tions begin for the sacrifice of the snow-white horse. 
After all these stately celebrations, it might be 



ILIAD OF INDIA. 171 

expected that the great poem would conclude with the 
established glories of the ancient dynasty. But if the 
martial part of the colossal epic is " Kshatriyan," and 
the religious episodes "Brahmanic," the conclusion 
breathes the spirit of Buddhism. Yudhishthira sits 
grandly on the throne ; but earthly greatness does not 
content the soul of man, nor can riches render weary 
hearts happy. A wonderful scene, which reads like a 
rebuke from the dead addressed to the living upon the 
madness of all war, occurs in this part of the poem. 
The Pandavas and the old King Dhritarashtra being 
together by the banks of the Ganges, the great saint 
Vyasa undertakes to bring back to them all the 
departed, slain in their fratricidal conflict. The spec- 
tacle is at once terrible and tender. 

But this revealing of the invisible world deepens the 
discontent of the princes, and when the sage Vyasa 
tells them that their prosperity is near its end, they 
determine to leave their kingdom to younger princes, 
and to set out with their faces towards Mount Meru, 
where is Indra's heaven. If, haply, they may reach it, 
there will be an end of this world's joys and sorrows, 
and " union with the Infinite " will be obtained. My 
translations from the Sanskrit of the two concluding 
parvas of the poem (of which the above is a swift sum- 
mary) describe the " Last Journey " of the princes and 
their " Entry into Heaven ; " and herein occurs one of 
the noblest religious apologues not only of this great 
Epic but of any creed, a beautiful fable of faithful 



172 TWO BOOKS FROM THE 

love which may be contrasted, to the advantage of the 
Hindu teaching, with any Scriptural representations 
of Death, and of Love, " which stronger is than Death." 
There is always something selfish in the anxiety of 
Orthodox people to save their own souls, and our best 
religious language is not free from that taint of pious 
egotism. The Parvas of the Mahabharata which con- 
tain Yudhishthira's approach to Indra's paradise teach, 
on the contrary, that deeper and better lesson nobly 
enjoined by an American poet 

" The gate of heaven opens to none alone, 
Save thou one soul, and it shall save thine own." 

These prefatory remarks seemed necessary to intro- 
duce the subjoined close paraphrase of the " Book of 
the Great Journey," and the " Book of the Entry into 
Heaven ; " being the Seventeenth and Eighteenth 
Parvas of the noble but, as yet, almost unknown 
Mahabharata. 



THE MAHAPRASTHANIKA PARVA OF THE 
MAHABHAPtATA. 

" THE GREAT JOURNEY." 

To Narayen, Lord of lords, le glory givevi, 
To sweet Saraswati, the queen in heaven, 
To great Vydsa, eke, pay reverence due, 
So shall this story its high course pursue. 



ILIAD OF INDIA. 173 

Then Janmejaya prayed : " Thou Singer, say, 
What wrought the princes of the Pandavas 
On tidings of the battle so ensued, 
And Krishna, gone on high ? " 

Answered the Sage : 

" On tidings of the wreck of Vrishni's race, 
King Yudhishthira of the Pandavas 
Was minded to be done with earthly things, 
And to Arjuna spake : ' O noble Prince, 
Time endeth all ; we linger, noose on neck, 
Till the last day tightens the line, and kills. 
Let us go forth to die, being yet alive/ 
And Kunti's son, the great Arjuna, said : 
* Let us go forth to die ! Time slayeth all ; 
We will find Death, who seeketh other men.' 
And Bhimasena, hearing, answered : ' Yea ! 
We will find Death ! ' and Sahadev cried : ' Yea ! ' 
And his twin brother Nakula : whereat 
The princes set their faces for the Mount. 

" But Yudhishthira ere he left his realm, 
To seek high ending summoned Yuyutsu, 



I 7 4 TWO BOOKS FROM THE 

Surnamed of fights, and set him over all, 

Regent, to rule in Parikshita's name 

Nearest the throne ; and Parikshita king 

He crowned, and unto old Subhadra said : 

* This, thy son's son, shall wear the Kuru crown, 

And Yadu's offspring, Vajra, shall be first 

In Yadu's house. Bring up the little prince 

Here in our Hastinpur, but Vajra keep 

At Indraprasth ; and let it be thy last 

Of virtuous works to guard the lads, and guide/ 

" So ordering ere he went, the righteous king 
Made offering of white water, heedfully, 
To Vasudev, to Rama, and the rest, 
All funeral rites performing ; next he spread 
A funeral feast, whereat there sate as guests 
Narada, Dwaipayana, Bharadwaj, 
And Markandeya, rich in saintly years, 
And Yajnavalkya, Hari, and the priests. 
Those holy ones he fed with dainty meats 
In kingliest wise, naming the name of Him 
Who bears the bow ; and that it should be well 
For him and his gave to the Brahmanas 



ILIAD OF INDIA. 175 

Jewels of gold and silver, lakhs on lakhs, 
Fair broidered cloths, gardens and villages, 
Chariots and steeds and slaves. 

" Which being done, 

O Best of Bharat's line ! he bowed him low 
Before his Guru's feet, at Kripa's feet, 
That sage all honoured, saying, ' Take my prince ; 
Teach Parikshita as thou taughtest me. 
For hearken, ministers and men of war ! 
Fixed is my mind to quit all earthly state/ 
Full sore of heart were they, and sore the foJk 
To hear such speech, and bitter spread the word 
Through town and country, that the king would go ; 
And all the people cried, ' Stay with us, Lord ! ' 
But Yudhishthira knew the time was come, 
Knew that life passes and that virtue lasts, 
And put aside their love. 

" So with farewells 
Tenderly took of lieges and of lords 
Girt he for travel, with his princely kin, 



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Great Yudhishthira, Dharma's royal son. 
Crest-gem and belt and ornaments he stripped 
From off his body, and for broidered robe 
A rough dress donned, woven of jungle-bark ; 
And what he did Lord of men ! so did 
Arjuna, Bhima, and the twin-born pair, 
Nakula with Sahadev, and she in grace 
The peerless Draupadi. Lastly these six, 
Thou son of Bh&rata ! in solemn form 
Made the high sacrifice of ISTaishtiki, 
Quenching their flames in water at the close ; 
And so set forth, midst wailing of all folk 
And tears of women, weeping most to see 
The Princess Draupadi that lovely prize 
Of the great gaming, Draupadi the Bright 
Journeying afoot; but she and all the Five 
Rejoiced, because their way lay heavenwards. 

" Seven were they, setting forth, princess and king, 
The king's four brothers, and a faithful dog. 
Those left Hastinapur ; but many a man, 
And all the palace household, followed them 
The first sad stage ; and, of ttimes prayed to part, 



ILIAD OF INDIA. 177 

Put parting off for love and pity, still 

Sighing ' A little farther ! * till day waned ; 

Then one by one they turned, and Kripa said, 

f Let all turn back, Yuyutsu ! These must go.' 

So came they homewards, but the Snake-King's child, 

Ulupi, leapt in Ganges, losing them ; 

And Chitranagad with her people went 

Mournful to Munipoor, whilst those three queens 

Brought Parikshita in. 

" Thus wended they, 

Pandu's five sons and loveliest Draupadi, 
Tasting no meat, and journeying due east ; 
On righteousness their high hearts bent, to heaven 
Their souls assigned; and steadfast trode their feet, 
By faith upborne, past nullah, ran, and wood, 
Eiver and jheel and plain. King Yudhishthir 
Walked foremost, Bhima followed, after him 
Arjuna, and the twin-born brethren next, 
ISTakula with Sahadev ; in whose still steps 
O Best of Bharat's offspring ! Draupadi, 
That gem of women, paced ; with soft, dark face, 

Beautiful, wonderful ! and lustrous eyes, 

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178 TWO BOOKS FROM THE 

Clear-lined like lotus-petals ; last the dog, 
Following the Pandavas. 

" At length they reach 

The far Lauchityan Sea, which foameth white 
Under Udayachala's ridge. Know ye 
That all this while Nakula had not ceased 
Bearing the holy bow, named Gandiva, 
And jewelled quiver, ever filled with shafts 
Though one should shoot a thousand thousand times. 
Here broad across their path the heroes see 
Agni, the god. As though a mighty hill 
Took form of front and breast and limb, he spake. 
Seven streams of shining splendour rayed his brow, 
While the dread voice said : ' I am Agni, chiefs ! 
sons of Pandu, I am Agni ! Hail ! 
O'long-armed Yudhishthira, blameless king, 
O warlike Bhima, Arjuna, wise, 
O brothers twin-born from a womb divine, 
Hear ! I am Agni, who consumed the wood 
By will of Narayan for Arjuna's sake. 
Let this your brother give Gandiva back, 
The matchless bow : the use for it is o'er. 



ILIAD OF INDIA. 197 

That gem-ringed battle-discus wliich he whirled 
Cometh again to Krishna in his hand 
For avatars to be ; but need is none 
Henceforth of this most excellent bright bow, 
Gandiva, which I brought for Partha's aid 
From high Varuna. Let it be returned. 
Cast it herein ! ' 

" And all the princes said, 
' Cast it, dear brother ! ' So Arjuna threw 
Into that sea the quiver ever-filled, 
And glittering bow ; then, led by Agni's light, 
Unto the south they turned, and so south-west, 
And afterwards right west, until they saw 
Dwaraka, washed and bounded by a main 
Loud-thundering on its shores ; and here Best ! 
Vanished the God ; while yet those heroes walked, 
Now to the north-west bending, where long coasts 
Shut in the sea of salt, now to the north, 
Accomplishing all quarters, journeyed they ; 
The earth their altar of high sacrifice, 
Which these most patient feet did pace around 
Till Meru rose. 



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"At last it rose ! These Six, 
Their senses subjugate, their spirits pure, 
Wending alone, came into sight far off 
In the eastern sky of awful Himavan ; 
And, midway in the peaks of Himavan, 
Meru, the Mountain of all mountains, rose, 
Whose head is heaven ; and under Himavan 
Glared a wide waste of sand, dreadful as death. 

" Then, as they hastened o'er the deathly .waste, 
Aiming for Meru, having thoughts at soul 
Infinite, eager, lo ! Draupadi reeled, 
With faltering heart and feet ; and Bhfma turned, 
Gazing upon her ; and that hero spake 
To Yudhishthira : ' Master, Brother, King ! 
Why doth she fail ? For never all her life 
Wrought our sweet lady one thing wrong, I think. 
Thou knowest, make us know, why hath she failed ? ' 

" Then Yudhishthira answered : ' Yea, one thing. 
She loved our brother better than all else, 
Better than heaven : that was her tender sin, 
Fault of a faultless soul ; she pays for that/ 



ILIAD OF INDIA. 181 

" So spake the monarch, turning not his eyes, 
Though Draupadf lay dead striding straight on 
For Meru, heart-full of ihe things of heaven, 
Perfect and firm. But yet a little space, 
And Sahadev fell down, which Bhfma seeing, 
Cried once again : ' King, great Madri's son 
Stumbles and sinks. Why hath he sunk ? so true, 
So brave and steadfast, and so free from pride ! ' 

" ' He was not free/ with countenance still fixed, 
Quoth Yudhishthira ; ' he was true and fast 
And wise, yet wisdom made him proud ; he hid 
One little hurt of soul, but now it kills/ 

" So saying, he strode on Kunti's strong son 
And Bhima, and Arjuna followed him 
And Nakula, and the hound; leaving behind 
Sahadev in the sands. But Nakula, 
Weakened and grieved to see Sahadev fall 
His dear-loved brother lagged and stayed ; and next, 
Prone on his face he fell, that noble face 
Which had no match for beauty in the land, 
Glorious and godlike Nakula ! Then sighed 



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Bhfma anew : ' Brother and Lord ! the man 
Who never erred from virtue, never broke 
Our fellowship, and never in the world 
Was matched for goodly perfectness of form 
Or gracious feature, Nakula has fallen ! ' 

" But Yudhishthira, holding fixed his eyes, 
That changeless, faithful, all-wise king, replied : 
' Yea, but he erred. The godlike form he wore 
Beguiled him to believe none like to him 
And he alone desirable, and things 
Unlovely to be slighted. Self-love slays 
Our noble brother. Bhima, follow ! Each 
Pays what his debt was. ' 

" Which Arjuna heard, 

Weeping to see them fall ; and that stout son 
Of Pandu, that destroyer of his foes, 
That prince, who drove through crimson waves of war, 
In old days, with his chariot-steeds of milk, 
He, the arch-hero, sank ! Beholding this, 
The yielding of that soul unconquerable, 
Fearless, divine, from Sakra's self derived, 



ILIAD OF INDIA. 183 

Arj una's, Bhfma cried aloud : ' king ! 
This man was surely perfect. Never once, 
Not even in slumber when the lips are loosed, 
Spake he one word that was not true as truth. 
Ah, heart of gold, why art thou broke ? King ! 
Whence falleth he ? ' 

" And Yudhishthira said, 
Not pausing : ' Once he lied, a lordly lie ! 
He bragged our brother that a single day 
Should see him utterly consume, alone, 
All those his enemies, which could not be. 
Yet from a great heart sprang the unmeasured speech. 
Howbeit a finished hero should not shame 
Himself in such wise, nor his enemy, 
If he will faultless fight and blameless die : 
This was Arjuna's sin. Follow thou me ! ' 

" So the king still went on. But Bhima next 
Tainted, and stayed upon the way, and sank ; 
Yet, sinking, cried behind the steadfast prince : 
' Ah, brother, see ! I die ! Look upon me, 



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Thy well-beloved! Wherefore falter I, 
Who strove to stand ? ' 



"And Yudhishthira said : 

' More than was well the goodly things of earth 
Pleased thee, my pleasant brother ! Light the offence, 
And large thy virtue ; but the o'er-fed flesh 
Plumed itself over spirit. Pritha's son, 
For this thou failest, who so near didst gain.' 

" Thenceforth alone the long-armed monarch strode, 
Not looking back, nay ! not for Bhima's sake, 
But walking with his face set for the Mount ; 
And the hound followed him, only the hound. 

" After the deathly sands, the Mount ! and, lo ! 
Sakra shone forth, the God, filling the earth 
And heavens with thunder of his chariot-wheels. 
' Ascend/ he said, ' with me, Pritha's great son ! ' 
But Yudhishthira answered, sore at heart 
For those his kinsfolk, fallen on the way : 
' Thousand-eyed, Lord of all the Gods, 
Give that my brothers come with me, who fell ! 



ILIAD OF INDIA. 185 

Not without them is Swarga sweet to me. 
She too, the dear and kind and queenly, she 
Whose perfect virtue Paradise must crown, 
Grant her to come with us ! Dost thou grant this ? ' 

" The God replied : ' In heaven thou shalt see 
Thy kinsmen and the queen these will attain 
And Krishna. Grieve no longer for thy dead, 
Thou chief of men ! their mortal covering stripped, 
They have their places ; but to thee the gods 
Allot an unknown grace : thou shalt go up 
Living and in thy form to the immortal homes/ 

" But the king answered : ' thou Wisest One, 
Who know'st what was, and is, and is to be, 
Still one more grace ! This hound hath ate with me, 
Followed me, loved me : must I leave him now ? ' 

" ' Monarch/ spake Indra, ' thou art now as We, 
Deathless, divine ; thou art become a god ; 
Glory and power and gifts celestial, 
And all the joys of heaven are thine for aye : 
What hath a beast with these ? Leave here thy hound/ 



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" Yet Yudhishthira answered : ' O Most High, 

Thousand-eyed and Wisest ! can it be 
That one exalted should seem pitiless ? 
Nay, let me lose such glory : for its sake 

1 would not leave one living thing I loved.* 



" Then sternly Indra spake : * He is unclean, 
And into Swarga such shall enter not. 
The Krodhavasha's hand destroys the fruits 
Of sacrifice, if dogs defile the fire. 
.Bethink thee, Dharmaraj, quit now this beast ! 
That which is seemly is not hard of heart/ 



" Still he replied : ' 'Tis written that to spurn 
A suppliant equals in offence to slay 
A twice-born ; wherefore, not for Swarga's bliss 
Quit I, Mahendra, this poor clinging dog, 
So without any hope or friend save me, 
So wistful, fawning for my faithfulness, 
So agonized to die, unless I help 
Who among men was called steadfast and just.' 



ILIAD OF INDIA. 187 

" Quoth Indra : < Nay ! the altar-flame is foul 
Where a dog passeth ; angry angels sweep 
The ascending smoke aside, and all the fruits 
Of offering, and the merit of the prayer 
Of him whom a hound toucheth. Leave it here ! 
He that will enter heaven must enter pure. 
Why didst thou quit thy brethren on the way, 
And Krishna, and the dear-loved Draupadi, 
Attaining, firm and glorious, to this Mount 
Through perfect deeds, to linger for a brute ? 
Hath Yudhishthira vanquished self, to melt 
With one poor passion at the Door of bliss ? 
Stay'st thou for this, who didst not stay for them, 
Draupadf, Bhima ? ' 

" But the king yet spake : 

' Tis known that none can hurt or help the dead. 
They, the delightful ones, who sank and died, 
Following my footsteps, could not live again 
Though I had turned, therefore I did not turn ; 
But could help profit, I had turned to help. 
There be four sins, Sakra, grievous sins : 
The first is making suppliants despair, 



1 88 TWO BOOKS FROM THE 

The second is to slay a nursing wife, 

The third is spoiling Brahmans' goods by force, 

The fourth is injuring an ancient friend* 

These four I deem but equal to one sin, 

If one, in coming forth from woe to weal, 

Abandon any meanest comrade then/ 

" Straight as he spake, brightly great Indra smiled ; 
Vanished the hound, and in its stead stood there 
The Lord of Death and Justice, Dharma's self ! 
Sweet were the words which fell from those dread lips, 
Precious the lovely praise : ' thou true king, 
Thou that dost bring to harvest the good seed 
Of Pandu's righteousness ; thou that hast ruth 
As he before, on all which lives ! Son, 
I tried thee in the Dwaita wood, what time 
They smote thy brothers, bringing water ; then 
Thou prayed'st for Nakula's life tender and just 
Not Bhima's nor Arjuna's, true to both, 
To Madri as to Kunti, to both queens. 
Hear thou my word ! Because thou didst not mount 
This car divine, lest the poor hound be shent 
Who looked to thee, lo ! there is none in heaven 



ILIAD OF INDIA. 189 

Shall sit above thee, King ! Bharata's son, 
Enter thou now to the eternal joys, 
Living and in thy form. Justice and Love 
Welcome thee, Monarch! thou shalt throne with 
them ! ' 

" Thereat those mightiest Gods, in glorious train, 
Mahendra, Dharma, with bright retinue 
Of Maruts, Saints, Aswin-Kuinaras, Nats, 
Spirits and Angels, bore the king aloft, 
The thundering chariot first, and after it 
Those airy-moving Presences. Serene, 
Clad in great glory, potent, wonderful, 
They glide at will, at will they know and see, 
At wish their wills are wrought ; for these are pure, 
Passionless, hallowed, perfect, free of earth. 
In^such celestial midst the Pandu king 
Soared upward, and a sweet light filled the sky 
And fell on earth, cast by his face and form, 
Transfigured as he rose ; and there was heard 
The voice of Narad, it is he who writes, 
Sitting in heaven, the deeds that good men do 
In all the quarters, Narad, chief of scribes, 



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Narad the wise, who laudeth purity, 

So cried he : ' Thou art risen, unmatched king, 

Whose greatness is above all royal saints. 

Hail, son of Pandu ! like to thee is none 

Now or before among the sons of men, 

Whose fame hath filled the three wide worlds, who 

com'st 

Bearing thy mortal body, which doth shine 
With radiance as a god's/ 

" The glad king heard 

Narad's loud praise ; he saw the immortal gods, 
Dharma, Mahendra ; and dead chiefs and saints, 
Known upon earth, in blessed heaven he saw ; 
But only those. ' I do desire/ he said, 
That region, be it of the Blest as this, 

Or of the Sorrowful some otherwhere, 


Where my dear brothers are, and Draupadf. 

I cannot stay elsewhere ! I see them not ! ' 

" Then answer made Purandara, the God : 
' thou compassionate and noblest One, 
- Best in the pleasures which thy deeds have gained. 



ILIAD OF INDIA. 191 

How, being as are the Gods, canst thou live bound 

By mortal chains ? Thou art become of Us, 

Who live above hatred and love, in bliss 

Pinnacled, safe, supreme. Sun of thy race, 

Thy brothers cannot reach where thou hast climbed ! 

Most glorious lord of men, let not thy peace 

Be touched by stir of earth ! Look ! this is heaven. 

See where the saints sit, and the happy souls, 

Siddhas and angels, and the gods who live 

For ever and for ever/ 

" ' King of gods/ 

Spake Yudhishthira, ' but I will not live 
A little space without those souls I loved. 
Slayer of the demons ! let me go 
Where Bhima and my brothers are, and she, 
My Draupadf, the princess with the face 
Softer and darker than the Kihat-btid, 
And soul as sweet as are its odours. Lo ! 
Where they have gone, there will I surely go/ " 



( 192 ) 



THE ILIAD OF INDIA. 



THE SWARGAROHANA PARVA OF THE MAHABHARATA ; 
OR, "THE ENTRY INTO HEAVEN." 

To Narayen, Lord of lords, le glory given, 
To Queen Saraswati le praise in heaven; 
Unto Vydsa pay the reverence due, 
So may this story its high course pursue. 

THEN Janmejaya said : " I am fain to learn 
How it befell with my great forefathers, 
The Pandu chiefs and Dhritarashtra's sons, 
Being to heaven ascended. If thou know'st, 
And thou know'st all, whom wise Vyasa taught, 
Tell me, how fared it with those mighty souls ? " 

Answered the Sage : " Hear of thy forefathers 
Great Yudhishthira and the Pandu lords 



THE ILIAD OF INDIA. 193 

How it befell. When thus the blameless king 
Was entered into heaven, there he beheld 
Duryodhana, his foe, throned as a god 
Amid the gods ; splendidly sate that prince, 
Peaceful and proud, the radiance of his brows 
Far-shining like the sun's ; and round him thronged 
Spirits of light, with Sadhyas, companies 
Goodly to see. But when the king beheld 
Duryodhana in bliss, and not his own, 
Not Draupadi, nor Bhfma, nor the rest, 
With quick-averted face and angry eyes 
The monarch spake : ' Keep heaven for such as these 
If these come here ! I do not wish to dwell 
Where he is, whom I hated rightfully, 
Being a covetous and witless prince, 
Whose deed it was that in wild fields of war 
Brothers and friends by mutual slaughter fell, 
While our swords smote, sharpened so wrathf ully 
By all those wrongs borne wandering in the woods : 
But Draupadf s the deepest wrong, for he 
He who sits there haled her before the court, 
Seizing that sweet and virtuous lady lie ! 
With grievous hand wound in her tresses. Gods, 

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I cannot look upon him ! Sith 'tis so, 
Where are my brothers ? Thither will I go ! ' 

" Smiling, bright Narada, the Sage, replied : 
' Speak thou not rashly ! Say not this, King ! 
Those who come here lay enmities aside. 
Yudhishthira, long-armed monarch, hear ! 
Duryodhana is cleansed of sin ; he sits 
Worshipful as the saints, worshipped by saints 
And kings who lived and died in virtue's path, 
Attaining to the joys which heroes gain 
Who yield their breath in battle. Even so 
He that did wrong thee, knowing not thy worth, 
Hath won before thee hither, raised to bliss 
For lordliness, and valour free of fear. 
Ah, well-beloved Prince ! ponder thou not 
The memory of that gaming, nor the griefs 
Of Draupadi, nor any vanished hurt 
Wrought in the passing shows of life by craft 
Or wasteful war. Throne happy at the side 
Of this thy happy foeman, wiser now ; 
For here is Paradise, thou chief of men I 
And in its holy air hatreds are dead/ 



ILIAD OF INDIA. 195 

" Thus by such lips addressed the Pandu king 
Answered uncomforted : ' Duryodhana, 
If he attains, attains ; yet not the less 
Evil he lived and ill he died, a heart 
Impious and harmful, bringing woes to all, 
To friends and foes. His was the crime which cost 
Our land its warriors, horses, elephants ; 
His the black sin that set us in the field, 
Burning for rightful vengeance. Ye are gods, 
And just; and ye have granted heaven to him. 
Show me the regions, therefore, where they dwell, 
My brothers, those, the noble-souled, the loyal, 
Who kept the sacred laws, who swerved no step 
From virtue's path, who spake the truth, and lived 
Foremost of warriors. Where is Kunti's son, 
The hero-hearted Kama ? Where are gone 
Satyaki, Dhrishtadyumna, with their sons ? 
And where those famous chiefs who fought for me, 
Dying a splendid death ? I see them not. 
O Narada, I see them not ! No King 
Draupada ! no Virata ! no glad face 
Of Dhrishtaketu ! no Shikandina, 
Prince of Panchala, nor his princely boys ! 



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Nor Abhimanyu the unconquerable ! 

President Gods of heaven ! I see not here 

Badha's bright son, nor Yudhamanyu, 

Nor Uttamanjaso, his brother dear ! 

Where are those noble Maharashtra lords, 

Eajahs and rajpoots, slain for love of me ? 

Dwell they in glory elsewhere, not yet seen ? 

If they be here, high Gods ! and those with them 

For whose sweet sakes I lived, here will I live, 

Meek-hearted; but if such be not adjudged 

Worthy, I am not worthy, nor my soul 

Willing to rest without them. All, I burn, 

Now in glad heaven, with grief, bethinking me 

Of those my mother's words, what time I poured 

Death-water for my dead at Kurkslietra, 

" Pour for Prince Kama, Son I " but I wist not 

His feet were as my mother's feet, his blood 

Her blood, my blood. O Gods ! I did not know, 

Albeit Sakra's self had failed to break 

Our battle, where he stood. I crave to see 

Surya's child, that glorious chief who fell 

By Saryasachi's hand, unknown of me ; 

And Bhlma ! ah, ray Bhima ! dearer far 



ILIAD OF INDIA. 197 

Than life to me ; Arjuna, like a god, 

Nakla and Sahadev, twin lords of war, 

With tenderest Draupadi ! Show me those souls ! 

I cannot tarry where I have them not. 

Bliss is not blissful, just and mighty Ones ! 

Save if I rest beside them. Heaven is there 

Where Love and Faith make heaven. Let me go ! ' 

: * And answer made the hearkening heavenly Ones : 
' Go, if it seemeth good to thee, dear Son ! 
The King of gods commands we do thy will.' 

1 So saying [the Bard went on] Dharma's own voice 
Gave ordinance, and from the shining bands 
A golden Deva glided, taking best 
To guide the king there where his kinsmen were. 
So wended these, the holy angel first, 
And in his steps the king, close following. 
Together passed they through the gates of pearl, 
Together heard them close ; then to the left 
Descending, by a path evil and dark, 
Hard to be traversed, rugged, entered they 
The ' SINNERS' ROAD.' The tread of sinful feet 



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Matted the thick thorns carpeting its slope ; 

The smell of sin hung foul on them ; the mire 

About their roots was trampled filth of flesh 

Horrid with rottenness, and splashed with gore 

Curdling in crimson puddles ; where there buzzed 

And sucked and settled creatures of the swamp, 

Hideous in wing and sting, gnat-clouds and flies, 

With moths, toads, newts, and snakes red-gulleted, 

And livid, loathsome worms, writhing in slime 

Forth from skull-holes and scalps and tumbled bones. 

A burning forest shut the roadside in 

On either hand, and 'mid its crackling boughs 

Perched ghastly birds, or flapped amongst the flames, 

Vultures and kites and crows, with brazen plumes 

And beaks of iron ; and these grisly fowl 

Screamed to the shrieks of Prets, lean, famished ghosts, 

Featureless, eyeless, having pin-point mouths, 

Hungering, but hard to fill, all swooping down 

To gorge upon the meat of wicked ones ; 

Whereof the limbs disparted, trunks and heads, 

Offal and marrow, littered all the way. 

By such a path the king passed, sore afeared 

If he had known of fear, for the air stank 



ILIAD OF INDIA. 199 

With carrion stench, sickly to breathe; and lo ! 

Presently 'thwart the pathway foamed a flood 

Of boiling waves, rolling down corpses. This 

They crossed, and then the Asipatra wood 

Spread black in sight, whereof the undergrowth 

Was sword-blades, spitting, every blade, some wretch ; 

All around poison trees ; and next to this, 

Strewn deep with fiery sands, an awful waste, 

Wherethrough the wicked toiled with blistering feet, 

'Midst rocks of brass, red hot, which scorched, and pools 

Of bubbling pitch that gulfed them. Last the gorge 

Of Kutashala Mali, frightful gate 

Of utmost Hell, with utmost horrors filled 

Deadly and nameless were the plagues seen there ; 

Which when the monarch reached, nigh overborne 

By terrors and the reek of tortured flesh, 

Unto the angel spake he : ' Whither goes 

This hateful road, and where be they I seek, 

Yet find not ? ' Answer made the heavenly One : 

* Hither, great King, it was commanded me 

To bring thy steps. If thou be'st overborne, 

It is commanded that I lead thee back 

To where the Gods wait. Wilt thou turn and mount ? ' 



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"Then (0 thou Son of Bharat!) Yudhishthir 
Turned heavenward his face, so was he moved 
With horror and the hanging stench, and spent 
By toil of that black travel. But his feet 
Scarce one stride measured, when about the place 
Pitiful accents rang : ' Alas, sweet King ! 
Ah, saintly Lord ! Ah, Thou that hast attained 
Place with the Blessed, Pandu's offspring ! pause 
A little while, for love of us who cry ! 
bought can harm thee in all this baneful place ; 
But at thy coming there 'gan blow a breeze 
Balmy and soothing, bringing us relief. 
Pritha's son, mightiest of men ! we breathe 
Glad breath again to see thee ; we have peace 
One moment in our agonies. Stay here 
One moment more, Bharata's child ! Go not, 
Thou Victor of the Kurus ! Being here, 
Hell softens and our bitter pains relax/ 

" These pleadings, wailing all around the place, 
Heard the King Yudhishthira, words of woe 
Humble and eager ; and compassion seized 
His lordly mind. ' Poor souls unknown ! ' he sighed, 



ILIAD OF INDIA. 201 

And hellwards turned anew ; for what those were, 

Whence such beseeching voices, and of whom, 

That son of Pandu wist not, only wist 

That all the noxious murk was filled with forms, 

Shadowy, in anguish, crying grace of him. 

Wherefore he called aloud, ' Who speaks with me ? 

What do ye here, and what things suffer ye ? ' 

Then from the black depth piteously there came 

Answers of whispered suffering : c Kama I, 

O King ! ' and yet another, ' my Liege, 

Thy Bhima speaks ! ' and then a voice again, 

' I am Arjuna, Brother ! ' and again, 

c Nakla is here and Sahadev ! ' and last 

A moan of music from the darkness sighed, 

' Draupadf cries to thee ! ' Thereat broke forth 

The monarch's spirit, knowing so the sound 

Of each familiar voice, * What doom is this ? 

What have my well-beloved wrought to earn 

Death with the damned, or life loathlier than death 

In Narak's midst ? Hath Kama erred so deep, 

Bhima, Arjuna, or the glorious twins, 

Or she, the slender-waisted, sweetest, best, 

My princess, that Duryodhana should sit 



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Peaceful in Paradise with all his crew, 
Throned by Mahendra and the shining gods ? 
How should these fail of bliss, and he attain ? 
What were their sins to his, their splendid faults ? 
For if they slipped, it was in virtue's way 
Serving good laws, performing holy rites, 
Boundless in gifts and faithful to the death. 
These be their well-known voices ! Are ye here, 
Souls I loved best ? Dream I, belike, asleep, 
Or rave I, maddened with accursed sights 
And death-reeks of this hellish air ? ' 

" Thereat 

For pity and for pain the king waxed wroth. 
That soul fear could not shake, nor trials tire, 
Burned terrible with tenderness, the while 
His eyes searched all the gloom, his planted feet 
Stood fast in the mid horrors. Well-nigh, then, 
He cursed the gods ; well-nigh that steadfast mind 
Broke from its faith in virtue. But lie stayed 
Th' indignant passion, softly speaking this 
Unto the angel : ' Go to those thou serv'st ; 
Tell them I come not thither. Say I stand 



ILIAD OF INDIA. 203 

Here in the throat of hell, and here will bide 
Nay, if I perish while my well-belov'd 
Win ease and peace by any pains of mine/ 

' Whereupon, nought replied the shining One, 
But straight repaired unto the upper light, 
Where Sikra sate above the gods, and spake 
Before the gods the message of the king." 



"Afterward what befell?" the prince inquired. 

" Afterward, Princely One ! " replied the Sage, 

" At hearing and at knowing that high deed 

(Great Yudhishthira braving hell for love), 

The Presences of Paradise uprose, 

Each Splendour in his place, god Sdkra chief; 

Together rose they, and together stepped 

Down from their thrones, treading the nether road 

Where Yudhishthira tarried. Sakra led 

The shining van, and Dharrna, Lord of laws, 

Paced glorious next. Son of Bharata, 



204 TWO BOOKS FROM THE 

While that celestial company came down 
Pure as the white stars sweeping through the sky, 
And brighter than their brilliance look ! Hell's shades 
Melted before them; warm gleams drowned the gloom; 
Soft, lovely scenes rolled over the ill sights ; 
Peace calmed the cries of torment ; in its bed 
The boiling river shrank, quiet and clear ; 
The Asipatra Vana awful wood 
Blossomed with colours ; all those cruel blades, 
And dreadful rocks, and piteous scattered wreck 
Of writhing bodies, where the king had passed, 
Vanished as dreams fade. Cool and fragrant went 
A wind before their faces, as these Gods 
Drew radiant to the presence of the king, 
Maruts ; and Vasus eight, who shine and serve 
Ptound Indra ; Eudras ; Aswins ; and those Six 
Immortal Lords of light beyond our light, 
Th' Adityas ; Saddhyas ; Siddhas, those were there, 
With angels, saints, and habitants of heaven, 
Smiling resplendent round the steadfast prince. 

" Then spake the God of gods these gracious words 
To Yudhishthira, standing in that place : 



ILIAD OF INDIA. 205 

" ' King Yudhishthira ! thou long-armed Lord, 
This is enough ! All heaven is glad of thee. 
It is enough ! Come, thou most blessed one, 
Unto thy peace, well-gained. Lay now aside 
Thy loving wrath, and hear the speech of Heaven. 
It is appointed that all kings see hell. 
The reckonings for the life of men are twain : 
Of each man's righteous deeds a tally true, 
A tally true of each man's evil deeds. 
Who hath wrought little right, to him is paid 
A little bliss in Swargn, then the woe 
Which purges ; who much right hath wrought, from 

him 

The Jittle ill by lighter pains is cleansed, 
And then the joys. Sweet is peace after pain, 
And bitter pain which follows peace ; yet they, 
Who sorely sin, taste of the heaven they miss, 
And they that suffer quit their debt at last. 
Lo ! We have loved thee, laying hard on thee 
Grievous assaults of soul, and this black road. 
Bethink thee : by a semblance once, dear Son ! 
Drona thou didst beguile ; and once, dear Son ! 
Semblance of hell hath so thy sin assoiled, 



2 o6 TWO BOOKS FROM THE 

Which passe th with these shadows. Even thus 

Thy Bbima came a little space t' account, 

Draupadi, Krishna, all whom thou didst love, 

Never again to lose ! Come, First of Men ! 

These be delivered and their quittance made. 

Also the princes, son of Bhdrata ! 

Who fell beside thee fighting, have attained. 

Come thou to see ! Kama, whom thou didst mourn,- 

That mightiest archer, master in all wars, 

He hath attained, shining as doth the sun ; 

Come thou and see ! Grieve no more, King of Men ! 

Whose love helped them and thee, and hath its meed. 

Rajas and maharajahs, warriors, aids, 

All thine are thine for ever. Krishna waits 

To greet thee corning, 'companied by gods, 

Seated in heaven, from toils and conflicts saved. 

Son ! there is golden fruit of noble deeds, 

Of prayer, alms, sacrifice. The most just Gods 

Keep thee thy place above the highest saints, 

Where thon shalt sit, divine, compassed about 

With royal souls in bliss, as Hari sits; 

Seeing Mandhuta crowned, and Bhagirath, 

Dausliyanti, Bhdrata, with all thy line. 



ILIAD OF INDIA. 207 

Now therefore wash thee in this holy stream, 
Gunga's pure fount, whereof the bright waves bless 
All the Three Worlds. It will so change thy flesh 
To likeness of th' immortal, thou shalt leave 
Passions and aches and tears behind thee there/ 

"And when the awful Sakra thus had said, 
Lo ! Dharina spake, th' embodied Lord of Eight: 

" ' Bho ! bho ! I am well pleased ! Hail to thee, Chief ! 
Worthy, and wise, and firm. Thy faith is full, 
Thy virtue, and thy patience, and thy truth, 
And thy self-mastery. Thrice 1 put thee, King ! 
Unto the trial. In the Dwaita wood, 
The day of sacrifice, then thou stood'st fast ; 
Next, on thy brethren's death and Draupadi's, 
When, as a dog, I followed thee, and found 
Thy spirit constant to the meanest friend. 
Here was the third and sorest touchstone, Son ! 
That thou shouldst hear thy brothers cry in hell, 
And yet abide to help them. Pritlia's child, 
We love thee ! Thou art fortunate and pure, 
Past trials now. Thou art approved, and they 



208 TWO BOOKS FROM THE 

Thou lov'st have tasted hell only a space, 
Not meriting to suffer more than when 
An evil dream doth come, and India's beam 
Ends it with radiance as this vision ends. 
It is appointed that all flesh see death, 
And therefore thou hast borne the passing pangs, 
Briefest for thee, and brief for those of thine, 
Bhima the faithful, and the valiant twins 
Nakla and Sahadev, and those great hearts 
Kama, Arjuna, with thy princess dear, 
Draupadi. Come, thou best-beloved Son, 
Blessed of all thy line ! Bathe in this stream, 
It is great Gunga, flowing through Three Worlds/ 

" Thus high-accosted, the rejoicing king 
(Thy ancestor, O Liege ! ) proceeded straight 
Unto that river's brink, which floweth pure 
Through the Three Worlds, mighty, and sweet, and 

praised. 

There, being bathed, the body of the king 
Put off its mortal, coming up arrayed 
In grace celestial, washed from soils of sin, 
From passion, pain, and change. So, hand in hand 



ILIAD OF INDIA. 209 

With brother-gods, glorious went Yudhishthir, 
Lauded by softest minstrelsy, and songs 
Of unknown music, where those heroes stood 
The princes of the Pandavas, his kin 
And lotus-eyed and lovliest Draupadi, 
Waiting to greet him, gladdening and glad. 



FROM THE "SAUPTIKA PARVA" 
OF THE MAHABHARATA, 

OR 

"NIGHT OF SLAUGHTER." 



To Narayen, Best of Lords, be glory given, 
To great Saraswati, the Queen in Heaven ; 
Unto Vydsa, too, be paid his meed, 
So shall this story worthily proceed. 

" Those vanquished warriors then," Sanjaya said, 
" Fled southwards ; and near sunset, past the tents 
Unyoked ; abiding close in fear and rage. 
There was a wood beyond the camp, untrod, 
Quiet, and in its leafy harbour lay 
The Princes, some among them bleeding still 
From spear and arrow-gashes ; all sore-spent, 



THE NIGHT OF SLAUGHTER. 211 

Fetching faint breath, and fighting o'er again 
In thought that battle. But there came the noise 
Of Pandavas pursuing, fierce and loud 
Outcries of victory whereat those chiefs 
Sullenly rose, and yoked their steeds again, 
Driving due east ; and eastward still they drave 
Under the night, till drouth and desperate toil 
Stayed horse and man ; then took they lair again, 
The panting horses, and the Warriors, wroth 
With chilled wounds, and the death-stroke of their 
King. 

" Now were they come, my Prince," Sanjaya said, 
" Unto a jungle thick with stems, whereon 
The tangled creepers coiled ; here entered they 
Watering their horses at a stream and pushed 
Deep in the thicket. Many a beast and bird 
Sprang startled at their feet ; the long grass stirred, 
With serpents creeping off; the woodland flowers 
Shook where the pea- fowl hid, and where frogs plunged 
The swamp rocked all its reeds and lotus-buds. 
A banian-tree, with countless dropping boughs 
Earth-rooted, spied they, and beneath its aisles 



212 FROM THE "SAUPTIKA PARVA." 

A pool; hereby they stayed, tethering their steeds, 
And dipping water, made the evening-prayer. 

" But when the c Day-maker ' sank in the west 
And Night descended gentle, soothing Night, 
Who comforts all, with silver splendour decked 
Of stars and constellations, and soft folds 
Of velvet darkness drawn then those wild things, 
Which roam in darkness, woke, wandering afoot 
Under the gloom. Horrid the forest grew 
With roar, and yelp, and yell, around that place 
Where Kripa, Kritavarman, and the son 
Of Drona lay, beneath the banian-tree ; 
Full many a piteous passage instancing 
In their lost battle-day of dreadful blood ; 
Till sleep fell heavy on the wearied lids 
Of Bhoja's child and Kripa. Then these Lords 
To princely life and silken couches used 
Sought on the bare earth slumber, spent and sad, 
As houseless outcasts lodge, 

" But, oh, my King ! 
There came no sleep to Drona's angry son, 



THE NIGHT OF SLAUGHTER. 213 

Great Aswatthaman. As a snake lies coiled 
And hisses, breathing, so his panting breath 
Hissed rage and hatred round him, while he lay 
Chin uppermost, arm-pillowed, with fierce eyes 
Roving the wood, and seeing sightlessly. 
Thus chanced it that his wandering glances turned 
Into the fig-tree's shadows, where there perched 
A thousand crows, thick-roosting, on its limbs ; 
Some nested, some on branchlets, deep asleep, 
Heads under wings all fearless ; nor, Prince ! 
Had Aswatthaman more than marked the birds 
Save that there fell out of the velvet night, 
Silent and terrible, an eagle-owl 
With wide, soft, deadly, dusky wings, and eyes 
Flame-coloured, and long claws and dreadful beak ; 
Like a winged sprite, or great Garood himself. 
Offspring of Bharata ! it lighted there 
Upon the banian's bough ; hooted, but low 
The fury smothering in its throat ; then fell 
With murd'rous beak and claws upon those crows, 
Eending the wings from this, the legs from that, 
From some the heads, of some ripping the crops ; 
Till, tens and scores, the fowl rained down to earth 



214 FROM THE " SAUPTIKA PARVA." 

Bloody and plucked, and all the ground waxed black 
With piled crow-carcases ; whilst the great owl 
Hooted for joy of vengeance, and again 
Spread the wide, deadly, dusky wings. 

" Up sprang 

The son of Drona, ' Lo ! this owl/ quoth he, 
c Teacheth me wisdom, lo ! one slayeth so 
Insolent foes asleep. The Pandu Lords 
Are all too strong in arms by day to kill ; 
They triumph, being many. Yet I swore 
Before the King, my Father, I would " kill " 
And " kill " even as a foolish fly should swear 
To quench a flame. It scorched, and I shall die 
If I dare open battle ; but by art 
Men vanquish fortune and the mightiest odds. 
If there be two ways to a wise man's wish, 
But only one way sure, he taketh this ; 
And if it be an evil way, condemned 
For Brahmans, yet the Kshattriya may do 
What vengeance bids against his foes. Our foes, 
The Pandavas, are furious, treacherous, base, 
Halting at nothing ; and how say the wise 



THE NIGHT OF SLAUGHTER. 215 

In holy Shasters ? " Wounded, wearied, fed, 

Or fasting ; sleeping, waking, setting forth, 

Or new arriving ; slay thine enemies ; " 

And so again, " At midnight when they sleep, 

Dawn when they watch not ; noon if leaders fall ; 

Eve, should they scatter ; all the times and hours 

Are times and hours good for killing foes." ' 

" So did the son of Drona steel his soul 
To break upon the sleeping Pandu chiefs 
And slay them in the darkness. Being set 
On this unlordly deed, and clear in scheme, 
He from their slumber roused the warriors twain, 
Kripa and Kritavarman." 



( 216 ) 



THE MORNING PRAYER. 



OUR Lord the Prophet (peace to him !) doth write 
Surah the Seventeenth, intituled " Night " 
" Pray at the noon ; pray at the sinking sun ; 
In night-time pray ; but most when night is done ; 
For daybreak's prayer is surely borne on high 
By angels, changing guard within the sky ; " 
And in another place : " Dawn's prayer is more 
Than the wide world, with all its treasured store." 

Therefore the Faithful, when the growing light 
Gives to discern a black hair from a white, 
Haste to the mosque, and, bending Mecca-way, 
Recite Al-Fdtihah while 'tis scarce yet day : 
" Praise be to Allah Lord of all that live : 
Merciful King and Judge ! To Thee we give 



THE MORNING PRAYER. 217 

Worship and honour ! Succour us, and guide 
Where those have walked who rest Thy throne beside : 
The way of Peace ; the way of truthful speech ; 
The way of Righteousness. So we beseech." 
He that saith this, before the East is red, 
A hundred prayers of Azan hath he said. 

Hear now a story of it told, I ween, 
For your souls' comfort by Jelal-ud-din, 
In the great pages of the Mesnevl ; 
For therein, plain and certain, shall ye see 
How precious is the prayer at break of day 
In Allah's ears, and in his sight alway 
How sweet are reverence and gentleness 
Shown to his creatures. Ali (whom I bless !) 
The son of Abu Talib he surnamed 
" Lion of God," in many battles famed, 
The cousin of our Lord the Prophet (grace 
Be his !) uprose betimes one morn, to pace 
As he was wont unto the mosque, wherein 
Our Lord (bliss live with him !) watched to begin 
Al-Fdtihah. Darkling was the sky, and straight 
The lane between the city and mosque-gate, 



2i8 THE MORNING PRAYER. 

By rough stones broken and deep pools of rain ; 

And there through toilfully, with steps of pain, 

Leaning upon his staff an old Jew went 

To synagogue, on pious errand bent : 

For those be " People of the Book," and some 

Are chosen of Allah's will, who have not come 

Unto full light of wisdom. Therefore he 

Ali the Caliph of proud days to be 


Knowing this good old man, and why he stirred 

Thus early, e'er the morning mills were heard, 

Out of his nobleness and grace of soul 

Would not thrust past, though the Jew blocked the 

whole 

Breadth of the lane, slow-hobbling. So they went, 
That ancient first ; and in soft discontent, 
After him Ali noting how the sun 
Flared nigh, and fearing prayer might be begun ; 
Yet no command upraising, no harsh cry 
To stand aside ; because the dignity 
Of silver hairs is much, and morning praise 
Was precious to the Jew, too. Thus their ways 
Wended the pair; Great Ali, sad and slow, 
Following the greybeard, while the East, a-glow, 



THE MORNING PRAYER. 219 

Blazed with bright spears of gold athwart the blue, 
And the Muezzin's call came " lllahu ! 
Allah-il- Allah!" 

In the mosque, our Lord 

(On whom be peace !) stood by the Mehrab-board 
In act to bow, and Fdtihah forth to say. 
But as his lips moved, some strong hand did lay 
Over his mouth a palm invisible, 
So that no voice on the Assembly fell. 
" Ya ! Rabbi 'lalamwia " thrice he tried 
To read, and thrice the sound of reading died, 
Stayed by this unseen touch. Thereat amazed 
Our Lord Muhammed turned, arose, and gazed ; 
And saw alone of those within the shrine 
A splendid Presence, with large eyes divine 
Beaming, and golden pinions folded down, 
Their speed still tokened by the fluttered gown. 
GABRIEL he knew, the spirit who doth stand 
Chief of the Sons of Heav'n, at God's right hand : 
" Gabriel ! why stayest thou me ? " the Prophet said, 
" Since at this hour the Fdtihah should be read." 



220 THE MORNING PRAYER. 

But the bright Presence, smiling, pointed where 

Ali towards the outer gate drew near, 

Upon the threshold shaking off his shoes 

And giving " alms of entry," as men use. 

" Yea ! " spake th' Archangel, " sacred is the sound 

Of morning-praise, and worth the world's wide round, 

Though earth were pearl and silver ; therefore I 

Stayed thee, Muhammed, in the act to cry, 

Lest Ali, tarrying in the lane, should miss, 

For his good deed, its blessing and its bliss." 



Thereat th' Archangel vanished : and our Lord 
Eead Fdtihah forth beneath the Mehrab-board. 



PROVERBIAL WISDOM 

FROM THE 

SHLOKAS OF THE HITOPADESA. 



BcUtcatton 

(TO FIRST EDITION). 

To you, dear Wife to whom beside so well ? 
True Counsellor and tried, at every shift, 

I bring my " Book of Counsels : " let it tell 
Largeness of love by littleness of gift : 

And take this growth of foreign sides from me % 
(A scholar's thanks for gentle help in toil,) 

Whose leaf, " though dark," Wee Milton's Hcvmony, 
"Bears a bright golden flower, if not in this soil." 

April 9, 1 86 1. 



PREFACE 

TO THE "BOOK OF GOOD COUNSELS." 



THE Hitopadea is a work of high antiquity and 
extended popularity. The prose is doubtless as old as 
our own era ; but the intercalated verses and proverbs 
compose a selection from writings of an age extremely 
remote. The MaJidbhdrata and the textual Veds are of 
those quoted; to the first of which Professor M. Williams 
(in his admirable edition of fheNala, 1860) assigns the 
modest date of 350 B.C., while he claims for the Rig- 
Veda an antiquity as high as 1 300 B.C. The Hitopade&a 
may thus be fairly styled " The Father of all Fables ; " 
for from its numerous translations have probably come 
Esop and Pilpay, and in latter days Eeinekc Fuchs. 
Originally compiled in Sanskrit, it was rendered, by 
order of Nushirvan, in the sixth century A.D., into Persic. 
From the Persic it passed, A.D. 850, into the Arabic, 
and thence into Hebrew and Greek. In its own land 
it obtained as wide a circulation. The Emperor Akbar, 
impressed with the wisdom of its maxims and the 



224 PREFACE. 

ingenuity of its apologues, commended the work of 
translating it to his own Vizier, Abdul Fazel. That 
Minister accordingly put the book into a familiar style, 
and published it with explanations, under the title of 
the Criterion of Wisdom. The Emperor had also sug- 
gested the abridgment of the long series of shlokes 
which here and there interrupt the narrative, and the 
Vizier found this advice sound, and followed it, like 
the present Translator. To this day, in India, the 
HitopadcSa, under its own or other names (as the Anvdri 
Suhaili), retains the delighted attention of young and 
old, and has some representative in all the Indian 
vernaculars. A selection from the metrical Sanskrit 
proverbs and maxims is here given. 



PROVERBIAL WISDOM 

FROM THE 

SHLOKAS OF THE HITOPADESA. 



This Book of Counsel read, and you shall see, 
Fair speech and Sanskrit lore, and Policy. 

" Wise men, holding wisdom highest, scorn delights, 

more false than fair ; 

Daily live as if Death's fingers twined already in thy 
hair! 

" Truly, richer than all riches, better than the best of 

gain, 

Wisdom is ; unbought, secure once won, none loseth 
her again. 



226 PROVERBIAL WISDOM. 

" Bringing dark things into daylight, solving doubts 

that vex the mind, 

Like an open eye is Wisdom he that hath her not 
is blind." 



" Childless art thou ? dead thy children ? leaving thee 

to want and doole ? 
Less thy misery than his is, who lives father to a fool." 

" One wise son makes glad his father, forty fools avail 

him not : 

One moon silvers all that darkness which the silly 
stars did dot." 

" Ease and health, obeisant children, wisdom, and a fair- 
voiced wife 

Thus, great King ! are counted up the five felicities 
of life. 

" For the son the sire is honoured ; though the bow-cane 

bendeth true, 

Let the strained string crack in using, and what ser- 
vice shall it do ? " 



PROVERBIAL WISDOM. 227 

" That which will not be, will not be and what is to 

be, will be : 
Why not drink this easy physic, antidote of misery ? " 

" Nay ! but faint not, idly sighing, ' Destiny is mightiest/, 
Sesamum holds oil in plenty, but it yieldeth none 
impressed." 

" Ah ! it is the Coward's babble, ' Fortune taketh, For- 
tune gave ; ' 

Fortune ! rate her like a master, and she serves thee 
like a slave." 

" Two-fold is the life we live in Fate and Will together 

run: 

Two wheels bear life's chariot onward Will it move 
on only one ? " 

" Look ! the clay dries into iron, but the potter moulds 

the clay : 

Destiny to-day is master Man was master yester- 
day." 



228 PROVERBIAL WISDOM. 

" Worthy ends come not by wishing. Wouldst thou ? 

Up, and win it, then ! 

While the hungry lion slumbers, not a deer comes to 
his den." 

" Silly glass, in splendid settings, something of the gold 

may gain ; 

And in company of wise ones, fools to wisdom may 
attain." 

"Labours spent on the unworthy, of reward the 

labourer balk ; 

Like the parrot, teach the heron twenty words, he will 
not talk." 



" Ah ! a thousand thoughts of sorrow, and a hundred 

things of dread, 

By the fools unheeded, enter day by day the wise 
man's head." 

" Of the day's impending dangers, Sickness, Death, and 

Misery, 

One will be ; the wise man, waking, ponders which 
that one will be," 



PROVERBIAL WISDOM. 229 

" Good things come not out of bad things ; wisely leave 

a longed-for ill. 

Nectar being mixed with poison serves no purpose 
but to kill." 

"Give to poor men, son of Kftnti on the wealthy 

waste not wealth ; 

Good are simples for the sick man, good for nought 
to him in health." 



" Be his Scripture-learning wondrous, yet the cheat will 

be a cheat ; 

Be her pasture ne'er so bitter, yet the cow's milk will 
taste sweet." 

" Trust not water, trust not weapons ; trust not clawed 

nor horned things ; 

Neither give thy soul to women, nor thy life to Sons 
of Kings/' 

Look ! the Moon, the silver roamer, from whose splen- 
dour darkness flies, 

With his starry cohorts marching, like a crowned king, 
through the skies : 



230 PROVERBIAL WISDOM. 

All his grandeur, all his glory, vanish in the Dragon's 

jaw; 
What is written on the forehead, that will be, and 

nothing more." 

" Counsel in danger ; of it 

Unwarned, be nothing begun ; 
But nobody asks a Prophet, 

Shall the risk of a dinner be run ? " 



"Avarice begetteth anger; blind desires from her 

begin ; 

A right fruitful mother is she of a countless spawn 
of sin/' 

" Be second and not first ! the share's the same 
If all go well. If not, the Head's to blame." 

" Passion will be Slave or Mistress : follow her, she 

brings to woe ; 

Lead her, 'tis the way to Fortune. Choose the path 
that thou wilt go." 



PROVERBIAL WISDOM. 231 

" When the time of trouble cometh, friends may of ttimes 

irk us most : 

For the calf at milking-hour the mother's leg is tying- 
post." 

" In good-fortune not elated, in ill-fortune not dismayed, 
Ever eloquent in council, never in the fight affrayed, 
Proudly emulous of honour, steadfastly on wisdom set; 
These six virtues in the nature of a noble soul are met. 
Whoso hath them, gem and glory of the three wide 

worlds is he ; 
Happy mother she that bore him, she who nursed him 

on her knee." 

" Small things wax exceeding mighty, being cunningly 

combined ; 

Furious elephants are fastened with a rope of grass- 
blades twined. 

" Let the household hold together, though the house be 

ne'er so small ; 

Strip the rice-husk from the rice-grain, and it groweth 
not at all." 



232 PROVERBIAL WISDOM. 

" Sickness, anguish, bonds, and woe 
Spring from wrongs wrought long ago." 

" Keep wealth for want, but spend it for thy wife, 
And wife, and wealth, and all, to guard thy life." 

" Death, that must come, comes nobly when we give 
Our wealth, and life, and all, to make men live." 

" Floating on his fearless pinions, lost amid the noon- 
day skies, 

Even thence the Eagle's vision kens the carcass where 
it lies ; 

But the hour that comes to all things comes unto the 
Lord of Air, 

And he rushes, madly blinded, to die helpless in the 
snare." 



Bar thy door not to the stranger, be he friend or be 

he foe, 
For the tree will shade the woodman while his axe 

doth lay it low. 



PROVERBIAL WISDOM. 233 

Greeting fair, and room to rest in ; fire, and water from 

the well 
Simple gifts are given freely in the house where 

good men dwell ; 

Young, or bent with many . winters ; rich, or poor, 

whate'er thy guest, 
Honour him for thine own honour better is he than 

the best. 

" Pity them that crave thy pity : who art thou to stint 

thy hoard, 

When the holy moon shines equal on the leper and 
the lord?" 

When thy gate is roughly fastened, and the asker 

turns away, 
Thence he bears thy good deeds with him, and his 

sins on thee doth lay. 

v ln the house the husband ruleth; men the Brahman 

" master " call ; 

Agni is the Twice-born's Master but the guest is 
lord of all. 



234 PROVERBIAL WISDOM. 

" He who does and thinks no wrong 
He who suffers, being strong 
He whose harmlessness men know 
Unto Swarga such doth go/' 



" In the land where no wise men are, men of little wit 

are lords ; 

And the castor-oil's a tree, where no tree else its shade 
affords." 



" Foe is friend, and friend is foe, 
As our actions make them so." 

" That friend only is the true friend who abides when 

trouble comes ; 
That man only is the brave man who can bear the 

battle-drums ; 
Words are wind; deed proveth promise: he who 

helps at need is kin ; 
And the leal wife is loving though the husband lose 

or win/' 



PROVERBIAL WISDOM. 235 

" Friend and kinsman more their meaning than the 

idle-hearted mind ; 
Many a friend can prove unfriendly, many a kinsman 

less than kind : 
He who shares his comrade's portion, be he beggar, 

be he lord, 
Comes as truly, comes as duly, to the battle as the 

board 
Stands before the king to succour, follows to the pile 

to sigh 
He is friend, and he is kinsman ; less would make the 

name a lie." 



" Stars gleam, lamps flicker, friends foretell of fate ; 
The fated sees, knows, hears them all too late." 



" Absent, flatterers' tongues are daggers present, softer 

than the silk ; 

Shun them! 'tis a draught of poison hidden under 
harmless milk ; 



236 PROVERBIAL WISDOM. 

Shun them when they promise little! Shun them 

when they promise much ! 
For, enkindled, charcoal Lurneth cold, it doth defile 

the touch." 



" In years, or moons, or half-moons three, 
Or in three days suddenly, 
Knaves are shent true men go free." 



" Anger comes to noble natures, but leaves there no 

strife or storm : 

Plunge a lighted torch beneath it, and the ocean grows 
not warm/* 

" Noble hearts are golden vases close the bond true 

metals make ; 
Easily the smith may weld them, harder far it is to 

break. 
Evil hearts are earthen vessels at a touch they crack 

a-twain, 
And what craftsman's ready cunning can unite the 

shards again ? " 



PROVERBIAL WISDOM. 237 

" Good men's friendships may be broken, yet abide they 

friends at heart ; 

Snap the stem of Luxmee's lotus, but its fibres will 
not part.'* 

" One foot goes, and one foot stands, 
When the wise man leaves his lands." 



Over-love of home were weakness ; wheresoe'er the 

hero come, 
Stalwart arm and steadfast spirit find or make for 

him a home. 
Little recks the awless lion where his hunting jungles 

lie- 
When he enters them be certain that a royal prey 

shall die." 



Very feeble folk are poor folk ; money lost takes wit 

away: 
All their doings fail like runnels, wasting through the 

summer day." 



238 PROVERBIAL WISDOM. 

" Wealth is friends, home, father, brother title to re- 
spect and fame ; 

Yea, and wealth is held for wisdom that it should 
be so is shame." 

" Home is empty to the childless ; hearts to those who 

friends deplore : 

Earth unto the idle-minded ; and the three worlds to 
the poor." 

" Say the sages, nine things name not : Age, domestic 

joys and woes, 
Counsel, sickness, shame, alms, penance; neither 

Poverty disclose. 
Better for the proud of spirit, death, than life with 

losses told ; 
Fire consents to be extinguished, but submits not to 

be cold." 

" As Age doth banish beauty, 

As moonlight dies in gloom, 
As Slavery's menial duty 
Is Honour's certain tomb ; 



PROVERBIAL WISDOM. 239 

As Hari's name and Hara's 

Spoken, charm sin away, 
So Poverty can surely 

A hundred virtues slay." 

Half-known knowledge, present pleasure purchased 

with a future woe, 
And to taste the salt of service greater griefs no 

man can know." 



" All existence is not equal, and all living is not 

life; 
Sick men live ; and he who, banished, pines for chil 

dren, home, and wife ; 
And the craven-hearted eater of another's leavings 

lives, 
And the wretched captive, waiting for the word of 

doom, survives ; 
But they bear an anguished body, and they draw a 

deadly breath ; 
And life cometh to them only on the happy day of 

death." 



240 PROVERBIAL WISDOM. 

" Golden gift, serene Contentment ! have thou that, 

and all is had ; 

Thrust thy slipper on, and think thee that the earth 
is leather-clad" 

" All is known, digested, tested ; nothing new is left to 

learn 

When the soul, serene, reliant, Hope's delusive dreams 
can spurn/' 

" Hast thou never watched, a- waiting till the great 

man's door unbarred ? 
Didst thou never linger parting, saying many a sad 

last word ? 
Spak'st thou never word of folly, one light thing thou 

would'st recall ? 
Eare and noble hath thy life been ! fair thy fortune 

did befall!" 

" True Eeligion ! 'tis not blindly prating what the 

gurus prate, 

But to love, as God hath loved them, all things, be 
they small or great ; 



PROVERBIAL WISDOM. 241 

And true bliss is when a sane mind doth a healthy 

body fill; 
And true knowledge is the knowing what is good and 

what is ill." 

" Poisonous though the tree of life be, two fair blossoms 

grow thereon : 

One, the company of good men ; and sweet songs of 
Poets, one." 



" Give, and it shall swell thy getting ; give, and thou 

shalt safer keep : 

Pierce the tank- wall ; or it yieldeth, when the water 
waxeth deep." 

" When the miser hides his treasure in the earth, he 

doeth well ; 

For he opens up a passage that his soul may sink to 
hell/' 

" He whose coins are kept for counting, not to barter 

nor to give, 

Breathe he like a blacksmith's bellows, yet in truth 
he doth not live." 



242 PROVERBIAL WISDOM. 

" Gifts, bestowed with words of kindness, making giving 

doubly dear : 
Wisdom, deep, complete, benignant, of all arroganey 

clear ; 
Valour, never yet forgetful of sweet Mercy's pleading 

prayer; 
Wealth, and scorn of wealth to spend it oh! but 

these be virtues rare ! " 



" Sentences of studied wisdom, nought avail they un- 
applied ; 

Though the blind man hold a lantern, yet his foot- 
steps stray aside." 

" Would'st thou know whose happy dwelling Fortune 
entereth unknown ? 

His, who careless of her favour, standeth fearless in 
his own ; 

His, who for the vague to-morrow barters not the 
sure to-day 

Master of himself, and sternly steadfast to the right- 
ful way : 



PROVERBIAL WISDOM. 243 

Very mindful of past service, valiant, faithful, true of 

heart 
Unto such comes Lakshmi smiling comes, and will 

not lightly part." 

"Be not haughty, being wealthy; droop not, having 

lost thine all ; 

Fate doth play with mortal fortunes as a girl doth 
toss her ball." 

" Worldly friendships, fair but fleeting ; shadows ef the 

clouds at noon ; 

Women, youth, new corn, and riches ; these be plea- 
sures passing soon." 

" For thy bread be not o'er thoughtful Heav'n for all 

hath taken thought : 

When the babe is born, the sweet milk to the mother's 
breast is brought. 

" He who gave the swan her silver, and the hawk her 

plumes of pride, 

And his purples to the peacock He will verily 
provide." 



244 PROVERBIAL WISDOM. 

" Though for good ends, waste not on wealth a minute ; 
Mud may be wiped, but wise men plunge not in it." 



" Brunettes, and the Banyan's shadow, 

Well-springs, and a brick-built wall, 
Are all alike cool in the summer, 
And warm in the winter all." 



" Ah ! the gleaming, glancing arrows of a lovely woman's 

eye! 
Feathered with her jetty lashes, perilous they pass 

thee by : 
Loosed at venture from the black bows of her arching 

brow, they part, 
All too penetrant and deadly for an undefended 

heart." 

" Beautiful the Koil seemeth for the sweetness of his 

song, 

Beautiful the world esteemeth pious souls for patience 
strong ; 



PROVERBIAL WISDOM. 245 

Homely features lack not favour when true wisdom 

they reveal, 
And a wife is fair and honoured while her heart is 

firm and leal." 

: Friend ! gracious word ! the heart to tell is ill able 
Whence came to men this jewel of a syllable." 



" Whoso for greater quits small gain, 
Shall have his labour for his pain ; 
The things unwon unwon remain, 
And what was won is lost again." 



" Looking down on lives below them, men of little store 

are great ; 

Looking up to higher fortunes, hard to each man 
seems his fate." 

" As a bride, unwisely wedded, shuns the cold caress of 

eld, 

So, from coward souls and slothful, Lakshmi's favours 
turn repelled." 



246 PROVERBIAL WISDOM. 

" Ease, ill-health, home-keeping, sleeping, woman- 
service, and content 

In the path that leads to greatness these be six 
obstructions sent." 

" Seeing how the soorma wasteth, seeing how the ant- 
hill grows, 
Little adding unto little live, give, learn, as life-time 



" Drops of water falling, falling, falling, brim the chatty 

o'er; 

Wisdom comes in little lessons little gains make 
largest store." 

" Men their cunning schemes may spin 
God knows who shall lose or win." 



" Shoot a hundred shafts, the quarry lives and flies 

not due to death ; 

When his hour is come, a grass-blade hath a point to 
stop his breath/* 



PROVERBIAL WISDOM. 247 

" Eobes were none, nor oil of unction, when the King 


of Beasts was crowned : 

'Twas his own fierce roar proclaimed him, rolling all 
the kingdom round/' 

" What but for their vassals, 

Elephant and man 
Swing of golden tassels, 

Wave of silken fan 
But for regal manner 

That the ' Chattra' brings, 
Horse, and foot, and banner 

What would come of kings ? " 

" At the work-time, asking wages is it like a faithful 

herd? 

When the work's done, grudging wages is that acting 
like a lord?" 

" Serve the Sun with sweat of body ; starve thy maw 

to feed the flame ; 

Stead thy lord with all thy service ; to thy death go, 
quit of blame." 



248 PROVERBIAL WISDOM. 

"Many prayers for him are uttered whereon many a 

life relies ; 

'Tis but one poor fool the fewer when the greedy 
jack-daw dies." 

" Give thy Dog the merest mouthful, and he crouches 

at thy feet, 
Wags his tail, and fawns, and grovels, in his eagerness 

to eat ; 
Bid the Elephant be feeding, and the best of fodder 

bring; 
Gravely after much entreaty condescends that 

mighty king." 



" By their own deeds men go downward, by them men 

mount upward all, 

Like the diggers of a well, and like the builders of a 
wall." 

" Rushes down the hill the crag, which upward 'twas so 

hard to roll : 

So to virtue slowly rises so to vice quick sinks the 
soul." 



PROVERBIAL WISDOM. 249 

" Who speaks unasked, or comes unbid, 
Or counts on service will be chid." 



" Wise, modest, constant, ever close at hand, 
Not weighing but obeying all command, 
Such servant by a Monarch's throne may stand." 

" Pitiful, who fearing failure, therefore no beginning 

makes, 

Why forswear a daily dinner for the chance of 
stomach-aches ? " 



" Nearest to the King is dearest, be thy merit low or 

high; 

Women, creeping plants, and princes, twine round 
that which groweth nigh." 



" Pearls are dull in leaden settings, but the setter is to 

blame ; 

Glass will glitter like the ruby, dulled with dust are 
they the same ? " 



2$o PROVERBIAL WISDOM. 

\ 

" And a fool may tread on jewels, setting in his turban 

glass ; 

Yet, at selling, gems are gems, and fardels but for 
fardels pass/* 

" Horse and weapon, lute and volume, man and woman, 

gift of speech, 

Have their uselessness or uses in the one who owneth 
each." 

" Not disparagement nor slander kills the spirit of the 

brave ; 

Fling a torch down, upward ever burns the brilliant 
flame it gave." 

" Wisdom from the mouth of children be it overpast of 

none; 

What man scorns to walk by lamplight in the absence 
of the sun ? " 



" Strength serves Eeason. Saith the Mahout, when he 

beats the brazen drum, 
'Ho! ye elephants, to this work must your mighti- 



nesses come/ " 



PROVERBIAL WISDOM. 251 

" Mighty natures war with mighty : when the raging 

tempests blow, 

O'er the green rice harmless pass they, but they lay 
the palm-trees low/' 

" Narrow-necked to let out little, big of belly to keep 

much, 
As a flagon is the Vizier of a Sultan should be such/' 



" He who thinks a minute little, like a fool misuses 

more; 

He who counts a cowry nothing, being wealthy, will 
be poor/' 



" Brahmans, soldiers, these and kinsmen of the three 

set none in charge : 
For the Brahman, though you rack him, yields no 

treasure small or large ; 
And the soldier, being trusted, writes his quittance 

with his sword, 
And the kinsman cheats his kindred by the charter 

of the word ; 



252 PROVERBIAL WISDOM. 

But a servant old in service, worse than any one is 

thought, 
Who, by long-tried license fearless, knows his master's 

anger nought." 

" Never tires the fire of burning, never wearies Death of 

slaying, 

Nor the sea of drinking rivers, nor the bright-eyed of 
betraying." 

" From false friends that breed thee strife, 
From a house with serpents rife, 
Saucy slaves and brawling wife 
Get thee forth, to save thy life." 

" Teeth grown loose, and wicked-hearted ministers, and 

poison trees, 

Pluck them by the roots together ; 'tis the thing that 
giveth ease." 

" Long-tried friends are friends to cleave to never 

leave thou these i' the lurch : 

What man shuns the fire as sinful for that once it 
burned a church ? " 



PROVERBIAL WISDOM. 253 

" Eaise an evil soul to honour, and his evil bents 

remain ; 

Bind a cur's tail ne'er so straightly, yet it curleth up 
again," 

" How, in sooth, should Trust and Honour change the 

evil nature's root ? 

Though one watered them with nectar, poison-trees 
bear deadly fruit." 

" Safe within the husk of silence guard the seed of 

counsel so 

That it break not being broken, then the seedling 
will not grow." 

" Even as one who grasps a serpent, drowning in the 

bitter sea, 

Death to hold and death to loosen such is life's 
perplexity/' 

" Woman's love rewards the worthless kings of knaves 

exalters be ; 

Wealth attends the selfish niggard, and the cloud rains 
on the sea." 



254 PROVERBIAL WISDOM. 

" Many a knave wins fair opinions standing in fair 

company, 

As the sooty soorma pleases, lighted by a brilliant 
eye." 

" Where the azure lotus blossoms, there the alligators 

hide; 

In the sandal-tree are serpents. Pain and pleasure 
live allied." 

" Rich the sandal yet no part is but a vile thing habits 

there ; 

Snake and wasp haunt root and blossom; on the 
boughs sit ape and bear." 



" As a bracelet of crystal, once broke, is not mended ; 
So the favour of princes, once altered, is ended." 



" Wrath of kings, and rage of lightning both be very 

full of dread ; 

But one falls on one man only one strikes many 
victims dead." 



PROVERBIAL WISDOM. 255 

' All men scorn the soulless coward who his manhood 

doth forget : 
On a lifeless heap of ashes fearlessly the foot is set." 

" Simple milk, when serpents drink it, straightway into 

venom turns ; 

And a fool who heareth counsel all the wisdom of it 
spurns." 

" A modest manner fits a maid, 

And Patience is a man's adorning ; 
But brides may kiss, nor do amiss, 
And men may draw, at scathe and scorning." 

" Serving narrow-minded masters dwarfs high natures 

to their size : 

Seen before a convex mirror, elephants do show as 
mice." 

" Elephants destroy by touching, snakes with point of 

tooth beguile ; 

Kings by favour kill, and traitors murder with a fatal 
smile," 



256 PROVERBIAL WISDOM. 

" Of the wife the lord is jewel, though no gems upon 

her beam ; 

Lacking him, she lacks adornment, howsoe'er her 
jewels gleam ! " 

" Hairs three-lakhs, and half-a-lakh hairs, on a man so 

many grow 

And so many years to Swarga shall the true wife 
surely go ! " 

"When the faithful wife, embracing tenderly her 
husband dead, 

Mounts the blazing pyre beside him, as it were a 
bridal-bed ; 

Though his sins were twenty thousand, twenty thou- 
sand times o'er-told, 

She shall bring his soul to splendour, for her love so 
large and bold." 



" Counsel unto six ears spoken, unto all is notified : 
When a King holds consultation, let it be with one 
beside," 



PROVERBIAL WISDOM. 257 

" Sick men are for skilful leeches prodigals for poison- 
ing- 
Fools for teachers and the man who keeps a secret, 
for a King." 

" With gift, craft, promise, cause thy foe to yield ; 
When these have failed thee, challenge him a-field." 

" The subtle wash of waves do smoothly pass, 
But lay the tree as lowly as the grass." 

"Ten true bowmen on a rampart fifty's onset may 

sustain ; 

Fortalices keep a country more than armies in the 
plain." 

" Build it strong, and build it spacious, with an entry 

and retreat ; 

Store it well with wood and water, fill its garners full 
with wheat." 

" Gems will no man's life sustain ; 
Best of gold is golden grain." 



258 PROVERBIAL WISDOM. 

" Hard it is to conquer nature : if a dog were made a 

King, 

'Mid the coronation trumpets he would gnaw his 
sandal-string." 

" 'Tis no Council where no Sage is 'tis no Sage that 

fears not Law ; 

'Tis no Law which Truth confirms not 'tis no Truth 
which Fear can awe." 

" Though base be the Herald, nor hinder nor let, 

For the mouth of a king is he ; 
The sword may be whet, and the battle set, 
But the word of his message goes free." 

" Better few and chosen fighters than of shaven-crowns 

a host, 

For in headlong flight confounded, with the base the 
brave are lost." 

" Kind is kin, howe'er a stranger kin unkind is stranger 

shown ; 

Sores hurt, though the body breeds them drugs 
relieve, though desert-grown." 



PROVERBIAL WISDOM. 259 

" Betel - nut is bitter, hot, sweet, spicy, binding, 

alkaline 

A demulcent an astringent foe to evils intestine ; 
Giving to the breath a fragrance to the lips a 

crimson red ; 
A detergent, and a kindler of Love's flame that lieth 

dead. 
Praise the Gods for the good betel ! these be thirteen 

virtues given, 
Hard to meet in one thing blended, even in their 

happy heaven." 



" He is brave whose tongue is silent of the trophies of 

his sword ; 

He is great whose quiet bearing marks his greatness 
well assured." 

" When the Priest, the Leech, the Vizier of a King his 

flatterers be, 

Very soon the King will part with health, and wealth, 
and piety/' 



26o PROVERBIAL WISDOM. 

" Merciless, or money-loving, deaf to counsel, false of 

faith, 
Thoughtless, spiritless, or careless, changing course 

with every breath, 
Or the man who scorns his rival if a prince should 

choose a foe, 
Ripe for meeting and defeating, certes he would 

choose him so." 



" By the valorous and unskilful great achievements 

are not wrought ; 

Courage, led by careful Prudence, unto highest ends 
is brought." 



" Grief kills gladness, winter summer, midnight-gloom 

the light of day, 
Kindnesses ingratitude, and pleasant friends drive pain 

away; 
Each ends each, but none of other surer conquerors 

can be 
Than Impolicy of Fortune of Misfortune Policy." 



PROVERBIAL WISDOM. 261 

" Wisdom answers all who ask her, but a fool she can- 
not aid ; 

Blind men in the faithful mirror see not their reflection 
made." 



" Where the Gods are, or thy Giini in the face of Pain 

and Age, 

Cattle, Brahmans, Kings, and Children reverently 
curb thy rage/' 



" Oh, my Prince ! on eight occasions prodigality is 

none 

In the solemn sacrificing, at the wedding of a son, 
When the glittering treasure given makes the proud 

invader bleed, 
Or its lustre bringeth comfort to the people in their 

need, 
Or when kinsmen are to succour, or a worthy work 

to end, 
Or to do a loved one honour, or to welcome back a 

friend." 



262 PROVERBIAL WISDOM. 

" Truth, munificence, and valour, are the virtues of a 

King; 
Eoyalty, devoid of either, sinks to a rejected thing." 



" Hold thy vantage ! alligators on the land make none 

afraid ; 

And the lion's but a jackal who hath left his forest- 
shade." 

" The people are the lotus-leaves, their monarch is the 

sun 
When he doth sink beneath the waves they vanish 

every one. 
When he doth rise they rise again with bud and 

blossom rife, 
To bask awhile in his warm smile, who is their lord 

and life." 

"All the cows bring forth are cattle only now and 

then is born 

An authentic lord of pastures, with his shoulder- 
scratching horn." 



PROVERBIAL WISDOM. 263 

" When the soldier in the battle lays his life down for 

his king, 

Unto Swarga's perfect glory such a deed his soul 
shall bring." 

Tis the fool who, meeting trouble, straightway Destiny 
reviles, 

Knowing not his own misdoing brought his own mis- 
chance the whiles." 

" ' Time-not-come ' and ' Quick-at-Peril,' these two fishes 

'scaped the net ; 

1 What- will-be- will-be/ he perished, by the fishermen 
beset." 

" Sex, that tires of being true, 
Base and new is brave to you ! 
Like the jungle-cows ye range, 
Changing food for sake of change." 



" That which will not be will not be, and what is to be 

will be : 
Why not drink this easy physic, antidote of misery ? " 



264 PROVERBIAL WISDOM. 

" Whoso trusts, for service rendered, or fair words, an 

enemy, 

Wakes from folly like one falling in his slumber from 
a tree." 

"Fellow be with kindly foemen, rather than with 

friends unkind ; 

Friend and foeman are distinguished not by title but 
by mind." 

" Whoso setting duty highest, speaks at need unwel- 
come things, 

Disregarding fear and favour, such an one may suc- 
cour kings." 

" Brahmans for their lore have honour; Kshattriyas for 

their bravery ; 

Vaisyas for their t hard-earned treasure ; Sudras for 
humility." 

" Seven foemen of all foemen, very hard to vanquish be : 
The Truth-teller, the Just-dweller, and the man from 
passion free, 



PROVERBIAL WISDOM. 265 

Subtle, self-sustained, and counting frequent well- 
won victories, 

And the man of many kinsmen keep the peace with 
such as these." 

" For the man with many kinsmen answers by them 

all attacks ; 

As the bambu, in the bambus safely sheltered, scorns 
the axe." 

" Whoso hath the gift of giving wisely, equitably, well ; 
Whoso, learning all men's secrets, unto none his own 

will tell : 
Whoso, ever cold and courtly, utters nothing that 

offends, 
Such an one may rule his fellows unto Earth's 

extremest ends." 



" Cheating them that truly trust you, 'tis a clumsy 

villany ! 

Any knave may slay the child who climbs and 
slumbers on his knee." 



266 PROVERBIAL WISDOM. 

" Hunger hears not, cares not, spares not ; no boon of 

the starving beg ; 

When the snake is pinched with craving, verily she 
eats her egg." 



" Of the Tree of State the root 
Kings are feed what brings the fruit/' 



" Courtesy may cover malice ; on their heads the wood- 
men bring, 

Meaning all the while to burn them, logs and faggots 
oh, my King ! 

And the strong and subtle river, rippling at the cedar's 
foot, 

While it seems to lave and kiss it, undermines the 
hanging root." 

u Weep not! Life the hired nurse is, holding us a 

little space ; 

Death, the mother who doth take us back into our 
proper place." 



PROVERBIAL WISDOM. 267 

" Gone, with all their gauds and glories : gone, like 

peasants, are the Kings, 

Whereunto this earth was witness, whereof all her 
record rings." 



" For the body, daily wasting, is not seen to waste away, 
Until wasted ; as in water set a jar of unbaked clay." 



" And day after day man goeth near and nearer to his 

fate, 

As step after step the victim thither where its slayers 
wait," 

" Like as a plank of drift-wood 

Tossed on the watery main, 
Another plank encountered, 

Meets, touches, parts again ; 
So tossed, and drifting ever, 

On life's unresting sea, 
Men meet, and greet, and sever, 

Parting eternally." 



268 PROVERBIAL WISDOM. 

IC Halt, traveller ! rest i' the shade : then up and leave 

it! 
Stay, Soul ! take fill of love ; nor losing, grieve it ! " 

" Each beloved object born 
Sets within the heart a thorn, 
Bleeding, when they be uptorn." 

" If thine own house, this rotting frame, doth wither, 
Thinking another's lasting goest thou thither ? " 

" Meeting makes a parting sure, 
Life is nothing but death's door." 

" As the downward-running rivers never turn and never 

stay, 

So the days and nights stream deathward, bearing 
human lives away/' 

" Bethinking him of darkness grim, and death's un- 

shunn&d pain, 

A man strong-souled relaxes hold, like leather soaked 
in rain." 



PROVERBIAL WISDOM. 269 

" From the day, the hour, the minute, 
Each life quickens in the womb ; 
Thence its march, no falter in it, 
Goes straight forward to the tomb/' 



" An 'twere not so, would sorrow cease with years ? 
Wisdom sees right what want of knowledge fears." 



" Seek not the wild, sad heart ! thy passions haunt it ; 
Play hermit in thy house with heart undaunted ; 
A governed heart, thinking no thought but good, 
Makes crowded houses holy solitude." 



" Away with those that preach to us the washing off 
of sin 

Thine own self is the stream for thee to make ablu- 
tions in : 

In self-restraint it rises pure flows clear in tide of 
truth, 

By widening banks of wisdom, in waves of peace and 
truth." 



270 PROVERBIAL WISDOM. 

Bathe there, thou son of Pandu ! with reverence and 

rite, 
For never yet was water wet could wash the spirit 

white." 

" Thunder for nothing, like December's cloud, 
Passes unmarked : strike hard, but speak not loud." 

" Minds deceived by evil natures, from the good their 

faith withhold ; 

When hot conjee once has burned them, children blow 
upon the cold." 



THE END. 



BALLANTYNfi, HANSON AND CO. 
EDINBURGH AMD LONDON 



g tfje same Sutfjor. 



Popular Edition, fcap. 8vo, paper, price 2s. Gil. Library Edition, 
crown 8vo, cloth, price 7s. 6d. 

THE LIGHT OF ASIA; 

OR, THE GREAT RENUNCIATION. 

ing the Lii'e and Teaching of Gautama, Prince of India and 
Founder of Buddhism. 

(As told in verse by an Indian Buddhist.) 



OPINIONS OF THE PRESS. 

"It is a work of great beauty. It tells a story of intense interest, which 
never flags for a moment ; its descriptions are drawn by the hand of u master 
with the eye of a poet and the familiarity of an expert with the objects de- 
senbed ; its tone is so lofty that there is nothing with which to compare it 
but the New Testament ; it is full of variety, now picturesque, now pathetic, 
now rising into the noblest realms of thought and aspiration ; it finds lan- 
guage penetrating, fluent, elevated, impassioned, musical always, to clothe 
its varied thoughts and sentiments." OLIVER WENDELL HOLMES, Interna- 
tional Review, October 1879. 

*' Mr. Arnold, one of the most musical and thoughtful of modern writers 
of verse, has given to the world in ' The Light of Asia,' a poem which is for 
many reasons remarkable. . . . Entirely apart from the vivid beauty of the 
scene as set forth in these noble lines, it is worthy of note with what inimi- 
table success the figure of onomatopoeia is employed : it is impossible to con- 
ceive of anything more perfect in this way than such a line as that descrip- 
tive of the successive rises of the (Himalayan) precipice. . . . Not the least 
of his mei its is that he writes such pure and delicious English. . . . 'The 
Light of Asia ' is a noble and worthy poem. " Morning Post, September 17, 
1879. 

" At the same time it may be said that there is scarcely a line which does 
not bear the stamp of the genuine poet, whether we regard the general lofti- 
ness of the tone, the nobility of the sentiment expressed, the richness of 
imagery, or the music of rhythm. If the sweetness of language sometimes 
cloys our Northern taste, which requires more of the rugged and heroic aa a 
foil to the ethereal, the fault must not be charged upon the singer, but upon 
the subject with which he deals." Examiner, August 30, 1879. 

" But it is not merely on account of its subject that this poem deserves 
attention ; it is full of poetic merit, and its descriptions are often exceedingly 
beautiful." Athenasum, August 9, 1879. 

41 No poetical work so thoroughly original as that of Mr. Edwin Arnold has 
appeared for many years. And it is not only original in its character, but 



strikingly beautiful in its language. The author by this poem takes a rank 
as a poet which probably would not have been predicted for him even by the 
most ardent admirer of his * Indian Song of Songs.' " Northern Whiff, July 
24, 1879. % 

" .... In his finer moments he writes with a power, a movement, and a 
variety of cadence not easily to be matched in days when the art of blank 
verse is so little legitimately studied ; and with a vigorous beauty of diction, 
inclining to the Saxon forms but not thereby losing scholarly elegance. . . . 
Man and nature, in Mr. Arnold's book, are thoroughly Indian. Not the 
least among the great merits of his work is its glowing local colour." New 
Quarterly Magazine, October 1879. 

" Mr. Arnold's magnificent poem, wjiich is alike remarkable for its prodi- 
gious erudition, its vivid local colour, and the exquisite polish arid melody 
of its rhythm." Liverpool Mail, July 19, 1879. 

" * The Light of Asia' is charming to read, suggestive of thought, and de- 
servingpof study. . . . For elevation of thought, uniformly picturesque and 
appropriate expression, and faultless music of rhythm these qualities sus- 
tained throughout a long and symmetrical composition ' The Light of Asia 1 
is altogether without a rival in contemporary literature. No such poem has 
appeared since 'Childe Harold."' The Pioneer, Allahabad. 

"... As pure as anything in Tennyson's 'Princess.'" . . . Bombay 
Gazetto- Summary, September 12, 1879. 

" Mr. Arnold has constructed a poem, which for affluence of imagination, 
splendour of diction, and virile descriptive power, will not be easily matched 
among the most remarkable productions in the literature of the day." New 
York Daily Tribune. 

"... A poem equally striking for the novelty of its conception, its vigour 
of execution, and the exquisite beauty of its descriptive passages." New 
York Daily Tribune, August 12, 1879. 

"'The Light of Asia' is a remarkable poem, and worthy of a place 
amongst the great poems of, our time. Mr. Arnold is far more than * a coiner 
of sweet words' he is the exponent of noble impressions. He in a scholai 
and a philosopher ; but he is also a true singer. " Daily Telegraph, August 
21, 1879. 

"With much skill Mr. Arnold has illustrated his narrative with a series 
at Indian pictures, the fascination of which will be felt by those who know 
India." Pall Mall Gazette, August 19, 1879. 

" Mr. Arnold's skill has not failed him. With a sure hand he has limned 
for us a portrait which is admirable in its fidelity to the accepted traditions 
of the original, which his knowledge of India and her people has enabled him 
to surround with the proper accessories, without once descending to the 
commonplace. . . . On these, as on other points, however, the author's wide 
knowledge of India and genuine interest in his subject enhance the value of 
his researches, and entitle his opinions to respect, whilst his powers of 
description carry the reader with them. In fact, in reading this remarkable 
poem, many will in imagination be transported again to the East, or, revive 
with pleasure, in wonderful freshness, long dormant memories of that far-off 
land.'* Observer, August 31, 1879. 

"We must testify to the grace and beauty of the poem. It is in truth 
'an Idyll of the King,' with Gautama instead of Arthur for its hero, nnd 
Nirvana iu stead of the Christian ideal and the Holy Graal as his aim. 
There is a fragrance of Tennyson's best poem about it, but there Is no slavish 
imitation of the Laureate." Edinburgh Courant. 

" In Mr. Edwin Arnold, Indian poetry and Indian thought have at length 



found a worthy English exponent. He brings to his work the facility of ft 
ready pen, a thorough knowledge of his subject, a great sympathy for the 
people of this country, and a command of public attention at home." 
Calcutta Englishman. 

14 It is as a poem first, and afterwards as a fine ethical study, that the work 
demands attention, and in both of these characters it is a work of an unusu- 
ally high order." Evening Post, New York, October 2, 1879. 

*' One is the more surprised ill reading this poem, to learn that the writer 
has created this lovely work of art, not in the stillness of a country solitude, 
nor amid the cloistered aisles of universities, but right in the throng and 
uproar of the bustling metropolis." Springfield Sunday Republican, August 
24, 1879. ^ 

"Mr. Arnold may be congratulated on the successful accomplishment of 
the difficult task he has set himself ; and those who feel at all in sympathy 
with the subject will be able to appreciate the beauty of the picture he has 
drawn." Academy, August 9, 1879. * 

" We have no doubt that this poem will make its mark, for it worthily 
treats a great theme. Future years may perhaps see it translated into some 
languages of the East in those countries where the name of Buddha is vene- 
rated, and his doctrine, with many adjuncts and corruptions, is followed to 
this day." Tablet, August 9, 1879. 

' ' * The Light of Asia ' should have many readers, and it certainly will add 
not a little to Mr. Arnold's literary reputation." Eastern Morning News, 
September 2, 1879. 

"This is no criticism of a religion supposed to be false, but the sympathetic 
presentment of a religion, so much of which is true, as from the mouth of a 
votary." Western Morning News. 

" In looking through the volume, one is struck with wonder at the mar- 
vellous richness of its imagery, its profundity of thought and purity of 
diction. . . . Thus ends one of the most remarkable books of the day, and 
one which is destined to do a great work in enlightening English readers." 
Boston Evening Transcript, October 8, 1879. 

"For brilliancy of imagination, flow and picturesqueness of language, 
strength and vigour of expression, depth of thought, and fascinating melody 
of versification, this work stands almost without a rival in modern poetry. 
. . . The local colour of the scenes amid which the story passes is reproduced 
with a skill little short of marvellous. Grace, impressive dignity, nobility 
of sentiment, and the highest religious aspirations distinguish the tone of 
this masterly poem from beginning to end. It often rises to sublimity, and 
never sinks below loftiness either in thought or expression. . . . Every page 
of this volume will afford pleasure to the cultured reader, and to the lover 
of true poetry it will be a perpetual delight." Boston Saturday Evening 
Gazette, October 11, 1879. 

" It is as a poem first, and afterwards as a fine ethical study, that the work 
demands attention, and in both of these characters it is a work of an un- 
usually high order, a great work despite certain inequalities of execution, 
which are not worth pointing out in detail." Troy (N. Y.) Press, October 
6, 1879. 

" It must be said of Mr. Arnold, however, that he made remarkable use of 
his time while in Hindostan, winning not only the decoration of the Order 
of the Star of India, but, by patient investigation concerning the religion and 
the language of the ruling classes and tribes, now giving to the world an epic 
glowing in its imagery, exquisite in its description, and of rare excellence in 
its religious, philosophical, and literary aspects. "The Weekly Item, Phila- 
delphia, October 18, 1879. 



"Nothing like it, indeed, has appeared for many years, and whether we 
consider the majesty of its theme, the grace and splendour of its workman- 
ship, the freshness of its details, or the circumstances of its authorship, it is 
alike one of the remarkable works of modern literature." Boston Literary 
World, October 11, 1879. 

"... The really sublime poem which Mr. Arnold puts into the mouth of 
a Buddhist devotee who speaks throughout, now in eloquent and highly 
ornate description, anon in vivid narrative,igaiu in rapt worship. ... 

" We cannot spare the space to enter upon the story of Buddha as told by 
Mr. Arnold ; since it is a duty to point out how artistically he has wrought 
up his epic with many a gem of purest ray serene, and passages that thrill 
through as we read them and recall the glorious Orient scenes that gave such 
thoughts their birth. ... 

"To criticise is impossible ; we can only admire and wonder at the wealth 
and the truth of epithet at the command of one who has composed his poem 
' in the brief interval of days without leisure.' Yet, if we do not err, * The 
Light af Asia ' will live in 6ur language for many a long year. It is one of 
those Vorks which grow upon the attention. It has within it enduring 
merits, and it will be more popular and better comprehended a generation 
hence than it is to-day. Many are the names of promising men who st:m<l 
upon the list of the winners of the 'Newdigate.' By this one work Mr. 
Edwin Arnold overtops them all and enters the narrow circle of the Masters." 
Morning Advertiser, October 31, 1879. 

"At last we have|i classic, a work of inspiration and power, which must 
broaden and brighten humanity, and give delight to many generations. The 
praise with which the higher critics have greeted 'The Light of Asia' will 
not prepare the reader for disappointment. As editor of the London Daily 
Tefepraph, the author can hardly be called a man of leisure ; yet 1m lofty 
verse seems to have sung itself out of the regions of mystic calm ; and even 
as a piece of literary work it wears an elegant nnih and masterly complete- 
ness . . . 

"Surely it is by such messages as this poem bears that the Christians who 
believe too narrowly, and the sceptics who believe not at all, learn the truth 
of what our own Lowell sang : 

' God sends His teachers into every age and clirnc, 
With revelations suited to their growth.' 

"The essence of the life of Prince Siddartha or Gautama is here distilled 
from the mingled mass of historic fact and legend, without loss of the rich 
aroma." The Christian Reyister, Boston, October 16, 1H79. 

". . . It is as worthy of his pen as the poet has showed himself worthy 
of the subject. There is a unity of Oriental colouring in the descriptive 
portion of the work, a truthfulness of motive eviuced in the masterly 
handling of Buddha's character, which are us precious as unique ; inasmuch 
as they present this charactapfnj^jj^first time in the history of Western 
literatuie. in the totitlgSpST/ttff fu^TM^iated beauty." Tkc Theosopkist, 
October 1879. 



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